Polska / podkarpackie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||podkarpackie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||jasielski / jasielski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Jasło / Jasło (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Jassel [j. niemiecki]; יאסלו [j. hebrajski]|
Jasło – miasto powiatowe położone w południowo-wschodniej Polsce, w województwie podkarpackim. Odległe 68 km na południowy zachód od Rzeszowa, 337 km na południe od Warszawy.
In 1262, King Boleslaw Wstydliwy allowed the Cistercians to establish an urban commune in Jasło and prohibited the Jews from settling down there. The commune was granted city rights only in 1365 by King Kazimierz Wielki, who probably lifted the ban on Jewish settlement. Further information on Jasło’s Jewry dates back to 1463.
The townsmen of many localities feared Jewish competition and acted against them; accordingly, some of the Polish towns tried to obtain decrees banning Jews from settling down and running businesses. One of such decrees, titled de non tolerandis Judaeis, became effective in 1589 in Jasło. Twenty years later, the law was tightened and as a result, the Jews were forced to leave the town. However, a few Jewish families still lived there in the middle of the 18th century, e.g. Zelman Ickowicz, a leaseholder (1745).
The situation had not changed until the first partition of Poland, whereafter the decree from 1589 was invalidated by the Austrians. Under their rule, the Jewish population increased and its assimilation progressed. The situation of Jews was described by priest Władysław Serna at the beginning of the 19th century: “There had been no Jew in Jasło until the beginning of the previous century. Then a Jew came and lived by a toll road, and later he moved to the town. Since that time, Jews have lived in Jasło together with Catholics”. Furthermore, Michał Franciszek Stoger wrote down his memories from the 1820’s: “Only one Jewish family could stay permanently in Jasło in order to maintain an inn for Jewish travelers (5 Jews lived in Jasło in 1826).”
In 1820, Emperor Franz Josef I allowed two Jewish families, the Steinhaus and the Welfeld, to settle down in Jasło; it had been stated that they were trustworthy and did not deal with usury. As a result of lifting the ban on Jewish settlement in 1867, the number of Jews in Galicia increased considerably. The same happened in Jasło, even before passing the requisite bills by local authorities. 433 Jews lived in Jasło in 1880; twenty years later, there were already 1524 of them, which made up 23.2 percent of the town’s population. They were mostly Hasidic Jews, followers of the tzadik from the nearby Bobowa. According to the county census carried out in that period, 86 percent of the local popula
Jasło was first mentioned in a document from 12th century, related to Mikolaj Bogoria foundation of a Cistercian monastery in Koprzywnica. A century later, in 1277, the Cistercian ownership of the village named Jasło was confirmed in a decree issued by Bolesław Wstydliwy. The village was clearly favoured by the king: 1262 the local fair was granted fiscal and judicial autonomy, which boosted its development.
Located by a trade route, Jasło developed quickly and was granted city rights by King Kazimierz Wielki in 1365. Three years later the Cistercians lost the town, which became a royal property. It was also the time when Jasło’s architecture and spatial arrangement changed and, accordingly, the town acquired a typically medieval character. Interestingly, Jasło had a bathhouse in 1388, which was rare in those times, and probably a parochial school; as it seems, the town enjoyed a remarkable intellectual development. The graduates continued their education at the Academy of Cracow; according to the registers, young people from Jasło went to study in Cracow almost every year.
By the end of the 14th century, the community had been divided and around 1430 it became a property of the local nobility. In the next 80 years it was owned entirely by the Pieniążek family from Krużlowa.
The first half of the 15th century saw a steady economical growth of Jasło as well as the rise of its significance among the other towns of Lesser Poland. However, these processes were interrupted by an invasion of Hungarians, who ravaged the whole Subcarpathian area. Jasło was plundered and burnt, but fortunately King Kazimierz granted the town a five-year tax exemption, thus helping it to recover after the devastation. In 1497, similarly, 26 townsmen were exempted from taxes for eight years; since their houses burnt down, King Jan Olbracht allowed them to improve their financial situation. The castellan of Biecz, Seweryn Boner, purchased the community forty years later.
The turn of the 15th and 16th century saw a boost in Jasło’s trade and crafts; this was caused by the increasing significance of the trade route from Hungary to Sandomierz through The Dukla Pass and Jasło.
Linen, felts, salt, grain, herrings from the Baltic Sea, sheepskins and furs were exported to the southern