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Janów (woj. śląskie)

Polska / śląskie

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Summary

Province:śląskie / kieleckie (before 1939)
County:częstochowski / częstochowski (before 1939)
Community:Janów / Złoty Potok (before 1939)
Other names:Yanov [jidysz]
יאנוב [j. hebrajski]
Янув [j. rosyjski]
 
GPS:
50.7231° N / 19.4316° E
50°43'23" N / 19°25'53" E

Location

Krzysztof Urbański

Herb gminy Janów | Bastian

The town of Janów is situated on the border of the mesoregion of the Czestochowa Uplands, and the mesoregion of the Lelów Rock Step, on the Wiercica River, a right-bank tributary of the Warta River.

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History

Krzysztof Urbański

Tablica pamiątkowa w Bełżcu | Adam Marczewski

The priest Jan Wiśniewski wrote about the Jewish community in the following way: “Hardly had the town been founded when they [The Jews] came here in order to take advantage of gullible Christians. The Jews have their own synagogue here, they have a Jewish community which is visited by Catholic legates, and they are getting rich at the Poles’ expense”

The most important Jewish firms in the years 1929-1930 were as follows: K. Gotfryd’s wood processing factory; I. Kohn’s windmill; N. Berkowicz’s barber’s salon, and A. Ferster and I. Koh’s bakeries. B. Blaugrund, L. Zalcberg and J. Zilberberg traded in textiles; S. Djament, E. Lampa, D. Lustiger and A. Milsztajn traded in meat; J. Rajnherc, S. Zygielbaum, M. Żólty traded in groceries; A. Wajsman traded in alcohol, and M. Orbach traded in iron. Stanisław Jokiel was the town doctor at that time.

The Jewish community included two towns: Janów and Olsztyn, and both towns competed with each other. Moreover, there was a conflict between the Hasidim and the Orthodox followers, which did not ensure the peaceful working of the community’s management. The community owned a synagogue, mikvah and cheder.

In 1923, rabbi Szymcha Zawłodower complained to the Ministry that the community did not pay him a fixed salary, and that the community’s economy was declining. As a result, the Częstochowa starost ordered an immediate inspection.

After the election in 1924, the community Board consisted of Józef Kohn, Jakób Rajnherz, Majer Icek Waksman, Henoch Hartman, Moszek Dynowski, Moszek Openhajm, Lejb Moszek Dyman, Herszlik Prajzerowicz, all of whom were merchants. There were no appeals against the result of the election.

In 1926, the Ministry of Faith ordered some expenses be cut from the budget, for example, for mending stoves, since this was an additional source of income for the rabbi. Moreover, they decided to cut the expenses for business trips and also cut the amount of 300PLN for the renovation of the synagogue. They had planned to have 6,400PLN of revenue in the budget, but towards the end of the year it became clear that they had only managed 5,409.79 PLN.

[W1] Moszek Chroberski , the shochet, followed rabbi Zawłodower’s lead and also demanded a pay rise. Flat rates for his services were revealed at the sa

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Local history

Krzysztof Urbański

Janów is located on the road leading from Szczekociny to Częstochowa, and was founded by Jan Stanisław Koniecpolski in 1696. It was named after the founder. The centre of town was a spacious, rectangular square with six streets leading from its corners. The one-storey houses, mainly made of wood, were located with a ridge along their front. Janów was granted the right to organise six markets and six fairs annually.

In the mid-19th century, there was one brick house and 116 wooden, and 960 Christians and 448 Jews lived in Janów at that time. In 1852, Wincenty Krasiński, who was a colonel with the light cavalry, purchased the town of Janów outright. Then, in 1860, a great fire consumed most of the town, and nine years later, Janów was deprived of its town charter.

In the II Republic of Poland, Janów was a town settlement in the municipality of Złoty Potok, with a population of 1,600 people at the beginning of the 1920s.

 

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