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Summary

Province:inne / poleskie (before 1939)
County:Іванаўскі раён (rejon janowski) / drohiczyński (before 1939)
Community: / Janów (before 1939)
Other names:Іванава,Янаў [j.białoruski]; Иваново [j.rosyjski]; Yanov [jidysz]; Ivanovas [j. litewski]
 
GPS:
52.1333° N / 25.5500° E
52°07'59" N / 25°33'00" E

Location

Andrej Zamojski

Janów (Polish: Janowo, Janów Poleski; Belarusian: Ивановоor Ivanava) is a city and county seat on the Samarovka river in the Brest region. Earlier names of the town include: Janowo, Janów Poleski, and (in Jewish sources) Janovi al-Yad Pinsk.

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History

Andrej Zamojski

Old history of Jewish settlement in Janów

The Jewish community of Janów developed in the first half of the 17th century. The first Jews settled there after 1620, and they belonged to the Pinsk county. Political and military events of the mid-17th century exerted negative influence on the development of the Jewish community. The Jewish community suffered during the Khmelnytsky uprising and the invasion of the Cossacks, and also as a result of military activities between the Russo-Ukrainian and Republic of Poland armies. In the 18th century, Janowo county enlarged numerically and strengthened economically. Jews were occupied with trade, land lease, and alcohol production. The census of 1765 listed 422 Jews in the town and its environs. In the 19th century, the Karlin-Stolin and Lubieszow Hasidic dynasties have gained the support of Jews from Janów. The majority, however, became faithful to the Mitnaggedim. In 1847, 1,283 Jews (56 percent of the population) had lived there. The economic and financial life of the Jews revolved around the market square, where all stores were Jewish-owned. Prosperous merchants exported products such as “Lithuanian” butter. In the second half of the 19th century, Jews were mainly occupied with petty trade and various handicrafts. They were famous in the area as tailors, shoemakers, carpenters, furriers, etc. Wealthy Jews achieved success in wood trade. Fires had caused considerable losses in the town and in the life of the Jewish community. In the 1890s, fire had consumed 50 Jewish homes. The second half of the 19th century was a time of industrial development in the town. Jewish entrepreneurs played leading role. In 1868, the merchant Awsej Lejser Wołowelski established a winery in the town. Besides that, two brickyards, two tanneries, and a vinegar factory were created in Janów at that time. Two Jews, Wołowelski (employed five workers) and the townsman Chławn Ginzberg, owned the brickyards. Józef Wołowelski and Itzchak Garbarz, both of whom were Jewish, owned the tanneries. In 1879, Abram Itzke, a Jew, opened a factory that produced vinegar and spirit. The products were sold in and around the town. In 1897, the Jewish community enlarged to 1,875 people, constituting 62 percent of Janów’s population. Jews held leading positions in the town’s economy. A mill, large sawmill, butter manufactu

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Local history

Andrej Zamojski

Пакроўская царква | Dybowski (globus.tut.by)

Janowo (Иваново) has been known since the 14th century as the Porchowo village, and donated to the Lutsk Cathedral of the Latin rite in 1423. In 1465, the name of the locality was changed to Janowo in honor of a Catholic bishop of Lutsk, Jan Łasowicz; and for a longer time it served as the Lutsk bishops’ second residence. From 1529, the town belonged to the Pinsk province. In 1497, prince Aleksander of the Great Duchy of Lithuania allowed three market fairs to be organized in Janowo annually. In 1525 and 1575, fires caused considerable damage in the town. The last fire burned down the entire Janowo. Residents moved to nearby villages, and the bishop’s residence remained empty for a long time. Janowo belonged to the kings of the Republic of Poland. Its residents enjoyed certain privileges, and peasants did not serve as serfs. The population was supposed to fulfill “the duty to cherish” the king. The royal administration required peasants to use their own carts and do various work. During the Russo-Polish War of 1654-1657, local inhabitants together with the Cossacks attacked Janowo. They caught and murdered Andrzej Bobola, a Jesuit sent there by the Pinsk Jesuit College to promote Catholicism among the local population. Andrzej Bobola led an active missionary work and died a martyr’s death for it. In 1853 he was announced Blessed and, in 1938 – a Saint. Pilgrims paid their homage at a stone column erected in the town’s center to commemorate the martyrdom of Andrzej Bobola. The castellan of Troki, J. Kopeć, also ruled the town. In 1678, he established a Jesuit mission there, which belonged to the College in Pinsk. After his death, the town was passed down to his daughter, Anna, the wife of prince J. Szujski, the chronicler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Later, the town belonged to other members of the Szujski dynasty, who held important positions in various offices in the Brest and Pinsk regions. In 1781, Janowo was transferred to the Orzeszko dynasty following Anna Szujska’s marriage to J. Orzeszko. The town belonged to this family also in the 19th century. After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, Janów belonged to the Russian Empire. The town was first located within the Slonim province, and later – in the Grodno province. Janów was economically tied with Brest and Pinsk. The construction of railroa

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