Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / kieleckie (before 1939)|
|County:||radomski / radomski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Iłża / Iłża (before 1939)|
Iłża – is a town in the southern part of the Masovian Province, Radom County and constitutes a seat of the Iłża Municipality.
It has 5.149 inhabitants (2008).
The first Jews began to arrive in this area after 1789 and they quickly settled the town. In 1827, Iłża had 376 Jews, i.e. 22 % of the whole population, in 1857 – 521 (26.3%), in 1879 – 2,069 (48%). They made their living conducting trade and plying a craft.
The religious community was officially established in 1850. A synagogue was erected on the site of the former faience factory owned by Zeliks Sunderland. There were a few cheders in the town and from 1910 a Jewish Public School for forty students. The community’s leader was Rabbi Mosiek Cukier born in 1848, Kazanów. He was educated by Wolf Baiman who held a degree of higher education and sang in the Kazanów synagogue. Later, his education progressed under the supervision of Rabbi Chaskiel Cukier, and then Rabbi Wolf Wajngord in Gniewoszów. He finished his education in Wieniawa, near Lublin, under the attentive eye of Rabbi Herszl Mendelson. From 1902, he was an active member of the Savings and Loan Society.
In 1837, a 1.4 ha cemetery was established at the road leading to Lipsko, and from 1850 it was the ownership of the community, which took care of providing a fence to it.
The literature of the 19th and 20th century makes frequent references to Iłża, which became renowned thanks to its inhabitant, poet Bolesław Leśmian, whose actual name was Lesman (1878-1937) paid numerous visits to the Sunderlands, a Jewish family.
World War I caused many damages. A lot of inhabitants suffered chicanery on the side of the Russians. Konrad Zieliński writes that Lejzok Herlik, a scrap metal dealer, was imprisoned only because several rifle shells were found at his place.
The most important Jewish companies towards the end of the 1920s included: bodywork factories owned by D. and Z. Grinszpan, and M. Kuperszmit, Sz. Grynberg’s brickyard, H. Zyckholc’s cap factory, J. Sztajnberg and J. Gryncwajg’s power plants, E. Foss’ dye works, hair-dressing salons belonged to Ch. Frenkiel and I. Wasersztajn, tanneries to J. L. Dawidman, M. Dawidman, H. Fajgenbaum, Sz. Grajsman, Majloch Griner, shoe upper factories belonged to I. Atlas, K. Grynglasa, Ch. And M. Milgram, and S. Zalcman, hulling mills to M. Bojman, and L. Rozen, floorboard manufacturing plant H. Kirszenblat, tailor’s shops to M. Fajntuch, I. Goldberg, H. Golwaser, J. Grynszpan, M. Majten
Iłża – is situated at the border of the Góry Świętokrzyskie and the Masovian Plain in the Iłżanka River valley. The history of the town dates back to the medieval times. Throughout several ages, Iłża belonged to the bishops from Kraków. The old town was chartered before 1260, and the new one at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries. In the 18th century, the Iłża estate included the town of Iłża and 14 villages. The town center with a hall was situated within the ancient defensive walls.
The town prospered for the most part through trade. Apart from the Monday market, the town organized seven fairs per year. It prospered during the 16th century. In 1569 Iłża had eighteen potters, sixteen blacksmiths, four shoemakers, three weavers, eight stall keepers, eight furriers, and two mills. The beer trade was common. In 1789, an ironworks, oil mill, mill, saw mill, textile factory and dye works operated in this area. Agriculture played a significant role, too. Until the mid-17th century, Iłza was a large pottery center. The products manufactured here were sent to Kraków, Gdańsk, and Vilnius.
After the third partition of Poland, Iłża was under Austrian occupation; later it was incorporated into the Duchy of Warsaw, and afterwards into the Kingdom of Poland. In 1820, there were 37 brick houses and 75 wooden ones in the town. In 1860, Iłża was inhabited by 1,879 people and had a network of 21 streets, 11 brick and storied, 59 single-storied and 166 wooden houses. Iłża became the County seat in 1867, however the fact was not enough to save it from degradation to the rank of a settlement in 1867. According to what Stanisław Marcinkowski writes: “pots manufacturing in the 19th century guaranteed employment to fifty masters, twenty journeymen, and thirty apprentices”.
The products were delivered by the local Jews to different parts of Kielce County.
In 1857, the number of the town’s inhabitants was 1,879, while in 1910 – 5,910. The development and growth of Iłża was impeded by fires and subsequent cholera epidemics. At the turn of the century, there were two grain warehouses, three dairy warehouses, fifty-two warehouses with miscellaneous articles, four with grocery products, several with products measured according to the el, or from the elbow to the fingertips, two with haberdashery, five with iron, and two wit
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