Polska / zachodniopomorskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||zachodniopomorskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||gryfiński / Landkreis Greifenhagen (before 1939)|
|Community:||Gryfino / Greifenhagen (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Greifenhagen [j. niemiecki]|
Gryfino is situated in the western part of the West Pomeranian Province, 38km (ca 23 miles) to the south of Szczecin, and close to the border with Germany. The town is situated on the coastal lowland, on the Weltynska Plain, and on the Regalica River (the East Oder). There are many ribbon lakes and some forests.
According to historical data, three Jewish families lived in Gryfino in the year of 1481. It is known that they paid taxes, and most probably their occupations were traded for money and pledge. In the same year, they were granted safety like other Jews who lived in other towns of Pomerania. It was issued by Duke Boguslaw X, and it was valid for six years. To get the privilege, Jews paid the duke an annual and a State Treasury tax. When its validity finished, it was renewed.
In 1492, a pogrom upon Jews took place in Sternberg, a town in Pomerania. Twenty-five men and two women of Jewish origin died in the flames. As a result, some Jewish families who lived in Pomerania found themselves in a difficult situation. Duke Boleslaw X gave in to the pressure from anti-Jewish circles that demanded that Jews be expelled from the region. Between the years of 1493 and 1499, all Jews were forced to move from Pomerania but leave all their possessions behind. A hundred years after those incidents, in 1705, four Jewish families inhabited Gryfino again. Their names are mentioned in the book.
Before the session of the Association of Pomerania Jews (Polish: Zwiazek Zydow Pomorskich, German: Pommersche Landjudenschaft) was called in 1706, Jews from Gryfino had been represented by Joachim David and David Joseph. In 1712, a fee of eight thalers was set for Jews who wanted to settle down in Gryfino. However, according to the letter No. 577 from Berlin Government to Pomerania Government of the 11th of June 1714, Sameul Marcus was not permitted to settle down in Gryfino because three other Jews had been already living there, and their growing number was not welcomed. In the report of the 2nd of April 1817 by commissioners Massow, Somnitz and Borck, names of five Jews were mentioned by the headword “Gryfino”, whereas not more than two Jews could live in the town. As a result, Samuel Marcus, who had to pay for his privilege, and David Joseph, who had already had it but was not in the town were allowed to stay in Gryfino. If the latter had come back, paid back fees and had not lived against the law, he could have got the permission to stay with his wife in the town. Three other Jews had to leave Gryfino. Those were: Nathan Hirsch, who, as the magistrate claimed, was reckless and was behind with fees, Jeremias David, a gravedigger who had the privilege but
The history of Gryfino began on the 1st March 1254, when a new-founded town called in German Greifenhagen (German Greif means griffin, and Hagen in an old form of Hain, which means grove) was given a Magdeburg town charter by duke Barnima I. The document was prepared in Seelow, a town near Frankfurt on the Oder. However, first settlements took place 8,000 BC and the Slavs inhabited that area between the 8th and 9th centuries. When Gryfino started to exist officially, it received 100 lans of arable land, 100 lans of pastures and forests, and it enjoyed the following privileges: a six-year levy-free period, a ferry on the Regalica River, the right to navigate over rivers, duty-freedom, a discharge of customs in the whole duchy, the right to fish, to cut hay and to build bridges over the Tywa River. The town kept gaining importance, and it was given more privileges, such as the right to found guilds, trade unions, free navigation over rivers in the whole country and to have a free port. Already in the 13th century, Gryfino actively took part in the policy of the districts in the duchy, especially because Brandenburg was a danger. In 1278, Gryfino and three other towns vouched a treaty between Barnima I and graf Konrad, and a treaty in Czworokol in 1278. After the peace of Frankfurt between Pomerania and Brandenburg in 1338, whose results were the succession of grafs in the Duchy of Szczecin and paying homage to that town, Gryfino joined an anti-duke coalition, which was in fact a coalition against Brandenburg. The coalition was run by Szczecin. The conflict, which involved armed actions, lasted three years, but the town did not pay homage. In the second half of the 14th century, Gryfino became even stronger bound up with Szczecin, and it started to lose its importance. By the end of the century, it was economically independent from the capital of the duchy, and it became a local trade centre. Nevertheless, it joined and supported the coalition of Hansa towns in the fight against the buccaneer organization of Witalijski brothers. In 1530, a great fire destroyed the whole town. During the Thirty Years’ War in 1630, a northern town district inhabited by Slavs (called wik) was burnt down, and the Swedish who were drawing back burnt bridges over the Regalica and the West Oder. Between the years of 1653 and 1679, Gryfino belonged to Swedish Pomerania, although