Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / warszawskie (before 1939)|
|County:||grójecki / grójecki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Grójec / Grójec (before 1939)|
|Other names:||גריצע [j. jidysz]; גרוייץ [j. hebrajski]; Груец [j. rosyjski]|
Tomasz Kawski+ izrael.badacz.org
Grójec is the capital of Grójec County, Mazovian Voivodeship, with a population of 14.800inhabitants (as of 2004). It is located on the Rawa Upland, on the Molnica River (river basin of the Jeziorka River).
Distances: Warsaw 48 km, Radom 58 km, Łódź 106 km, Mszczonów 30 km, Czersk 29 km, Tarczyn 14 km
The Grójec Jews began to settle down at the end of the 18th century. The independence of kehillas was only gained at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. At that time a cemetery was founded and a wooden synagogue was built which was later burnt in 1812.
In 1814 Jews took it upon themselves to erect a new synagogue. At the beginning Warsaw dioecese bishop raised an objection on 1.06.1814 but it was overruled on 3.09.1814. The construction of a synagogue began. It is not clear when the works were finished. During the period before the synagogue was put to use there must have been some other synagogue or bet ha-midrash or a prayer house. Two facilities which are described in one of the documents as the “old“ and the “new“ synagogue were renovated in 1850 and all construction works were completed at that time as well. Polychromes in the new synagogue executed from larch wood were most probably the work of Dawid Friedländer. At the beginning of the 20th century a new synagogue was erected in the place of the old one. It bordered on the old synagogue from the mid 19th century and the wooden house of the rabbi. The Jewish district was formed across a few streets. During the interwar period (1918-1939) the streets names were as follows: Warszawska, Mogielnicka, Kościelna, Rynek, Lewiczyńska, Skargi, Piłsudskiego, Zatylna, Radomska and Szpitalna. In the remaining streets (Poświętna, Jatkowa, Stodolna, Stokowa, Starostokowa, Nowostokowa) a percentage of Jewish residents were smaller. The centre of Jewish Grójec was situated in Lewiczyńska and Bóżniczek Streets where the most important elements of kehilla infrastructure were located: a synagogue, a kehilla house, a rabbi house and a bath house.
During the initial stage of the war there were 5,200 Jews living in Grójec. After the German army occupied the town on 12.09.1939 they were forced to leave the town. That concerned Jewish men aged 15 to 55. They got to Rawa Mazowiecka on foot. 122 people were expelled from their properties. The following 94 people were relocated from Piłudskiego Street to Laskowska Street.
A Judenrat [a Jewish council] was created and then in November 1940 a ghetto was founded. Originally Germans were planning to establish it in the western part of the town across Lewiczyńska Street which was inhabited by 2,585 Jews (80% of the whole Jewish
Tomasz Kawski /
It is one of the oldest settlements in southern Mazowsze. In the 11th and 12th centuries a castellan settlement existed in Grójec which was located in the place of today’s parish church. It was most probably preceded with the settlement situated in the valley of the Wola Worowska River.
In the 12th century a local parish and seat of archdeaconry were established here. There was a congregation of the canons near the church. The oldest information about Grójec dates back to the year 1234 (in the period of Konrad I Mazowiecki). In the middle of the 13th century the archdeaconry was moved to Czersk. The importance of Grójec was weakend significantly as a result of actions undertaken by Duke Konrad I who marked off a castellany in Czersk from the lands of Grójec castellany, which had previously included south-east Mazowsze.
In 1419 Duke Janusz I granted municipal rights to the settlement under the Chełm Law. These municipal privileges were extended by: Mazovian Duke Bolesław IV and Kings Zygmunt I Stary and Zygmunt August. In the 15th and 16th centuries the town was booming. The town hall was built and the streets were cobbled. After the incorporation of Mazowsze to the Crown in 1526 Grójec became a royal city and a center of the starosty sine iurisdictione within the new Mazowieckie Province. In 1564 Grójec consisted of 210 houses for about 1,000 inhabitants. The local craftsmen specialized in slaughter, beer and vodka production and manufacture of lute strings made of sheep bowels.
The Swedish Deluge in 1655-1660 brought a complete destruction of the town. In 1660 there were only 16 houses and 2 craftsmen in Grójec. Throughout the next one and a half century the town was experiencing an economic and demographic stagnation.
Following the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, Grójec was under the Prussian dominion and the center of the Czersk County in the Province of South Prussia.
In 1797 the town numbered 78 houses. It became a part of the The Duchy of Warsaw, (Warsaw department) in 1807 and eight years later of the The Kingdom of Poland (Mazowieckie Province). In 1867 the tsarist authorities established Grójec County.
It was not until the 19th century that Grójec began to grow intensively. Building the beaten tr
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