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Gorzów Wielkopolski

Polska / lubuskie

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Summary

Province:lubuskie / inne (before 1939)
County:gorzowski grodzki / Landsberg (Warthe) (before 1939)
Community:Gorzów Wielkopolski / Landsberg (Warthe) (before 1939)
Other names:Landsberg an der Warthe [j.niemiecki],
 
GPS:
52.7323° N / 15.2370° E
52°43'56" N / 15°14'13" E

Location

Andrzej Kirmiel

Gorzow Wielkopolski is situated in the northern part of Lubusz Province, at the intersection of a highway no.3 (E 65) and 22.

Gorzow Wielkopolski is an independent city and one of two capitals of Lubusz Province (seat of the provincial governor).


 

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History

Andrzej Kirmiel

Ilustracja nr 1 | nieznany

The exact date of Jewish settlement in Gorzow is unknown. It is assumed that it was after the year 1350, after the fire that consumed the town. To ease fire victim’s plight, Margrave Ludwig, a ruler of Brandenburg, exempt the city from all taxes. It is assumed that in this period, Jews were permitted to settle in Gorzow. Their capital contributed to the reconstruction of the city. Appearance of Jews in that period is also associated with a document from 6 June 1350, in which the Margrave granted the city of Neumark the right to take in Jews expelled from its surroundings.

It is accepted that the Jewish district was delineated in that period. The district encompassed the southwestern part of the city. Approximately the borders of the ghetto delineated Sikorskiego, Spichrzowa, Mlynska and Wodna Streets. [see streets’ names, plan of  Gorzow no. 2 and illustration no. 1]. Exactly how the first Jewish district looked is not known. The first written record dates back to 1557, to the period in which there were no Jews in Gorzow. The district handled all necessary institutions together with the cemetery, the synagogue, and the mikvah. Despite the fact that Jews settled in other cities of Neumark, only in Gorzow was there an official name in use for the “Jewish district”, which described part of the city in which Jews lived (in German: Judenviertel). It may mean that this district was strong and important but without any authentic sources this can only be speculative. 

The year of 1510 was fraught with many unfavorable consequences for the Jews in Brandenburg. An accusation of the Host profanation lead to the exile of Jews from the territory of Marches, thus from Gorzow. Chronologically it was the first exile of Jews from the city. Even if there were no Jews in the town, the territory of the ghetto was still called the Jewish district. Christians settled into the territory of the former Jewish district and adapted it to their needs. The mykvah, which was situated near the city wall, was transformed into public baths and as such it is mentioned in the sources from 1525. Jews expelled from Brandenburg, among whom were also Jews from Gorzow, moved to independent Poland. Many Jews settled in the western cities such as Skwierzyn and Miedzyrzecze among others.

For the official

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Local history

Andrzej Kirmiel /

Gorzów Wielkopolski | Marcin Wygocki

In the years 1975-1998 Gorzów was an administrative part of Gorzowskie Province (the capital of the province), and in the years 1950-1975, of Zielonogórskie Province.

Before 1945, the town belonged to Prussia, Brandenburg province, Frankfurt (Oder) administrative district, Landsberg (Warthe) county.

In the early Middle Ages, Gorzów was a small settlement situated next to the ford at the Warta river. In 1257, the Brandenburg margrave John I from the House of Ascania set up a town called Landisberch Nova here (the New Landsberg; Alt-Landsberg – the Old Landsberg -- was a town situated next to Berlin), which was supposed to constitute a counterweight to the Santok fortress located on the Polish side of the border. The first settlers arrived from Brandenburg, Lower Saxony and Westphalia. In 1260, the daughter of Przemysł I of Greater Poland Konstancia married Konrad, the son of the Brandenburg margrave John I. The lands of the Santok castellany without the town itself constituted her dowry.

The newly created town soon became an important cultural and trade center on the eastern boundaries of Brandenburg. The location of the town at the estuary of Kłodawka to the Warta, on the water and land communication crossroads, provided convenient conditions for urbanization and town development which flourished thanks to the work of merchants and craftsmen. It led to the town’s enlargement which gave it even bigger economic and strategic value. In the 13th century, a cathedral, which exists to this day, was erected. In 1321, the town was surrounded by walls.

In the 15th century, the Teutonic Order was interested in the Neumark lands, a part of which were covered by Gorzów. The Order bought the lands in 1402, after having received the support of the towns and some of the knights. In the same year,  the city councils of Neumark and Gorzów paid homage to the Order in Choszczno. Neumark did not bring any serious material profits to the Order and brought political difficulties instead. In 1455, on the basis of an agreement signed in Gniewo, Neumark with Gorzów was finally in the hands of the Elector of Brandenburg Frederic and from that time until the end of World War I, the lands remained in the hands of the House of Hohenzollern.

In 1433, Gorzów survived the Hussite siege. During the Thirty Years’ War (

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