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Golczewo

Polska / zachodniopomorskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:zachodniopomorskie / inne (before 1939)
County:kamieński / kamieński (before 1939)
Community:Golczewo / (before 1939)
Other names:Goliszewo (w latach 1945-1948)
niem. Gülzow
 
GPS:
53.8240° N / 14.9785° E
53°49'26" N / 14°58'42" E

Location

Małgorzata Grzenda

Golczewo is located in Zachodniopomorskie Province, 23 kilometres south-east of Kamień Pomorski. The town is situated between two lakes: Szczucze (Lower) and Okonie (Upper). These are first-class purity lakes and due to their natural values, protected nature and landscape areas were formed in this municipality.

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History

Małgorzata Grzenda

The history of the Jewish settlement in Golczewo began in 1705 since the mention of a Jew called Marcus Joseph, who previously lived in Dobra, dates back to this very year. One year later, he participated in the elections of the Jewish elders of Pomerania that took place in Stargard Szczeciński (Stargard). The fee that he paid for the protection of the state in 1712 amounted to 4 thalers.  According to the 1722 report of the Pomerania Government (German: Pommersche Regierung), there were two Jews living in Golczewo, Hieronymus Moses and Alexander Joseph. What is known about the first one is that he was wealthy and he could afford to pay for the privilege. The second Jew was the son-in-law of Marcus Joseph and in 1728 he paid 20 thalers and 16 groszys for the privileges. According to the data from 1749, there were three Jews living in the town: Aronius Moses, Lewin Salomon and Alexander Joseph’s widow. Three years later, there were four Jewish families living in Golczewo; 16 people in total. These people were listed in the reference book. However, a year later, on September 15, a clerk called Bühring presented a project aiming to decrease the permissible number of Jewish families allowed to live in the smaller towns of the district, such as Golczewo. The proposal was accepted by the Prussian king and, as a result, in 1764, only Lewin Salomon, a Jew who paid for the privileges 20 thalers, and Leyser’s widow, who, due to the lack of resources, was exempted from the fees, lived in Golczewo. The data concerning the Jews living in Golczewo in the 19th century is scarce. However, without a doubt, they moved back to the town. The names of the Jewish inhabitants who are presumed to have lived in the town at that time are listed in the reference book. These were almost solely merchants; however, there was also one shochet.  The names of the members of the community who died between 1850 and 1873, along with some more detailed information about them, are presented in the table. Towards the end of the century, the number of inhabitants amounted from 1,200 to 1,300, out of which only 50-60 people were of Jewish descent; whereas in 1905 – only 48. The official kehilla was established in Golczewo comparatively late, and its chairman was Paul Croner. In 1889, the position of a teacher in the community was held by H. Klang, and lat

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Local history

Małgorzata Grzenda

Before it took the current form, the name of the locality changed frequently. In 1304, it was Gulzov, and in 1315, Gulsow or Gulsowe. It originated from an Old Polish personal name authenticated in the 12th century – Golesz or Giolisz, which means “naked” or “a naked man”. The correct original meaning of the name reads as follows: Goleszewo or Goliszewo, which means the property of Golisz or Golesz. In the initial period of the settlement, the town of Golczewo was situated on the other, south defensive line of Kamień Pomorski, which runs from the Island of Wolin to the River Rega. In the 12th century, after Wolin had collapsed and after Duke Warcisław I had established the duke’s residence in Kamień Pomorski, the Wolińsk-Kamień cultural group began to develop in this area. In the 12th and 13th century, thanks to the Bishop of Kamień, Hermann von Gleichen from Thuringia, newcomers from Brandenburg settled in the area where nowadays Golczewo is situated. Near the town, a trading settlement, castrum et villa Gulzow, was set up. At that time, the settlement was in the ownership of the vassals of Duke Bogislaw IV and Ot­to I: Wulvekin Smeling (Schme­ling) and Echard Wedelstedt (Wedelstädt). Presumably, around 1284, they built a castle with a tower situated halfway between Nowograd and Kamień. This location was in accordance with the town and castle planning rules of the time; the distance between them was not supposed to exceed 30 kilometers.

The castle was located in the narrowing between the local lakes, on a small elevation. It was one of the biggest and best-built castles in Pomerania.  There was even a legend saying that it was connected to the Kamień Cathedral through an underground tunnel. The first records mentioning castrum Gülzow date back to 1304. At that time, Bishop of Kamień Pomorski, Heinrich Wacholz, bought from Wulvekin Smeling and Echard Wedel­stedt the castle in Golczewo for 1200 marks, paying them 500 marks of advance payment. This entitled the former owners to continue to live there. Four years later, after the invasion of the Brandenburg army on Kamień Pomorski, during which the Cathedral and the neighboring buildings were destroyed, the bishop was forced to transfer his residence to the Golczewo castle. However, only Bishop Friedrich von Eickstedt managed to pay off the next installmen

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