Polska / opolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||opolskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||krapkowicki / Gross Strechlitz (before 1939)|
|Community:||Gogolin / Gogolin (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Gogolin [j. niemiecki]|
Гоголин [j. rosyjski]
Gogolin is located in the Karpaty district, Opole Province. The town is situated on the western edge of the Slaski Upland, at the end of the Chelm Hummock.
Adam Marczewski /
In 1789-1799, the French Revolution, whose ideas of equality and fraternity were spread all across Europe by Napoleon's army, had a great impact on the European consciousness. This gave rise to a Jewish Enlightenment movement (Haskala), which aimed at the emancipation of Jews. This in turn encouraged Prussian authorities to implement social and economic reforms, which finally changed the situation of Jews in the Kingdom or Prussia.
On April 17, 1797 the authorities adopted Statut Generalny dla Żydów (General-Juden Reglement für Süd und Neu-Ostpreussen) (eng. the General Jewish Statute) that still saw Jews as a separate social class and permitted Jewish town’s citizenship only to certain extent as classification into protected and tolerated Jews was still valid..
In February 1808 Prussian authorities abolished all feudal privileges for guilds and towns, including the De non tolerandis Judaeis ones, which made possible for Jews to settle in all Silesian towns with permission of the authorities and freely purchase real estate.
On March 11, 1813 King Frederick William issued the edict on civic elations (Edikt die Burgerlichen Berhaltnisse der Juden), widely known as the emancipation edict, which equalized the rights of Jews, who now became rightful citizens of the Kingdom of Prussia and were thus called the state’s citizens (Statsbürger) or natives (Inländer.) In order to obtain Prussian citizenship it was necessary to assume a full name and to know German. The Jews who were granted all the civic rights received special certificates.
Under this edict Jews had the freedom of residence, profession, religion and religious rites together with the right to freely purchase real estate. From then on Jews could study at higher education institutions and occupy academic posts. Having civic rights they were also obligated to military service (from 1813 onwards they were being drafted into the army.) The king reserved the right to decide whether a Jewish person could work for Prussian state administration or not. New regulations abolished Jewish judicial system and deemed Jewish communities associations under private law.
According to Selma Stern, the edict of 1812 initiated “the economic, cultural and, subsequently, political emancipation of Jews,” and led to the formation of Jewish liberal communities next
The village Gogolin was first mentioned in 1223. From the fist half of the 14th century it was under Czech rule and it shared the political fate of Silesia. From 1742 it was incorporated into Prussia. It was a typical agricultural settlement, with only 312 inhabitants at the end of the 18th century. In 1845 the number of inhabitants in Gogolin increased to 796, as the opening of a railway line from Wroclaw to Kedzierzyn stimulated the development of local economy. It enabled to make use of the local limestone deposits, which had been exploited since the end of the 18th century. In 1846 there were already 45 working limestone furnaces. In 1854 the population of Gogolin amounted to 1,363 inhabitants, and in 1910 it increased to 3, 297.
Between the Wars, in 1921 during the III Silesian Uprising heavy fights took place in the region of Gogolin. As a result of a referendum, however, Gogolin remained within the boundaries of Germany. The number of inhabitants in Gogolin in 1933 was 4,135.
During Word War II, in January 1945 the town was occupied by the Soviet Army.
Gogolin was granted town rights in 1967. The population of Gogolin is 6,081 inhabitants (2007).