Polska / łódzkie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||łódzkie / łódzkie (before 1939)|
|County:||zgierski / brzeziński (before 1939)|
|Community:||Głowno / Głowno (before 1939)|
|Other names:||גלובנו [j. hebrajski]; Гловно [j. rosyjski]|
Główno – a town situated in central
Anna Szajna, Maya Lazar
In 1730, the then owner of the town, Baltazar Ciecierski brought Jews to Głowno in hope they would help revive urban trade and craft. 198 Jews lived there in 1793, which constituted 63 per cent of all inhabitants. Amongst Jewish craftsmen there were sewers, gravediggers, furriers, hat makers, five bakers, butchers and jewellers. There were six Jewish tradesmen, a hairdresser and an innkeeper in Głowno. The owner of the tannery was also a Jew; he hired 5 employees.
In 1822, an independent Jewish community with a synagogue, a mikveh and a beit midrash was established. The community established a shelter for impoverished Jews. All buildings were erected on areas leased from the court, which is why all fees and taxes worsened the economic situation of the community. In addition, the community was obliged to pay additional fees to local priests. In 1827, there were 784 Jews in Głowno; they constituted 77 percent of the total population. In 1848, the synagogue and house of learning were destroyed by fire. In 1857, the city was inhabited by 1237 Jews, or 76 per cent of all inhabitants. The new synagogue was erected before 1881.
At the turn of 19th ant 20th century Michał Pacanowski and Eliasz Laskowski served as Głowno community rabbis, the latter wasuntil 1920. Later he went to Warta where he was a famous and respected hassid maggid. Instead of him, Izaak Pacanowski was elected as Rabbi and later Elimelech Szapir. Both of them were killed in concentration camps.
During the interwar period in 1921, there were 1430 Jews in Głowno. It was 59 per cent of all inhabitants. Jewish political life was developing. Some of the local groups were: Organisation of Orthodox Jews in Poland, Agudath, Poale Zion, the Bund, Zionist Organisation, Organisation of Orthodox Zionists “Mizrachi”, Union of Revisionists Zionists. Representatives of Jewish political groups were interested also in election a city council. In 1924, five Jewish parties took part in municipal election. They received six seats (for the total number of 12).
In the years of the great crisis towards the 1930’s, the economical status of Jewish community in Głowno suddenly decreased. The situation got worse because of fires which destroyed ten Jewish houses in 1936. 28 Jewish families lost their houses.
In the second half
The town was formed in the 15th century. In 1427 Głowno received town rights. In 1504 a huge fire destroyed the city. In 1656 the town was destroyed by the Swedish army.
After the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 Głowno fell under the rule of Prussia. As of 1807 the town belonged to the Duchy of Warsaw and in 1815 it joined Congress Poland.
In 1869 the Tsar revoked Głowno’s town rights.
During World War I the town was largely ruined by artillery fire.
In the interwar period, in 1925 Głowno’s town rights were restored. At the time the town became famous as a vacation resort.
During Word War II, in September 1939, battles between Polish forces and the German army took place not far from Głowno. Polish guerilla forces were active around Głowno. In January 1945 the town was freed by Soviet forces.