Polska / opolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||opolskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||prudnicki / Neustadt (before 1939)|
|Community:||Głogówek / Ober Glogau (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Oberglogau [j. niemiecki]|
Adam Marczewski /
Głogówek – a town situated in south western
Adam Marczewski /
The first record about Jews living in Głogówek dates back to 1349. That was a period of “the Black Death”, which was widespread over Silesia and resulted in the famine epidemic. Seeking the reason of the misery, people started accusing Jews of poisoning wells, which led to the Jewish pogrom in Głogówek in 1349. This shows vividly that Jews must have been living there in 1349 .
Jews who were coming to Głogówek from the West, used the Western patterns of the organization of their social life and political country. They also had their own rites, religious rituals and the language of Ashkenazi Jews (in Hebrew אַשְׁכְּנָזִים,, the word ashkenazi is related to Germany as a country, from which they came). Jews who were settling there by the turn of the 13th and the 14th centuries did not have any legal limitations. Moreover, they were protected by several privileges issued by Silesian dukes who took the privileges patterns from those similar to the privilege issued by Bolesław the 5th the Chaste in 1264.
Over the 15th century most Jews traded and gave loans for Silesian Dukes (at that time there was a canonical prohibition to levy the interest from financial loans existing in the Christian Europe). Some Jews worked at the shops and the craft workshops.
Good financial situation of Jews was the reason of the increasing hatred and pogroms, which main base were economic issues. Kazimierz Bobowski described that situation: “Increasing pogroms of Jews in Silesia from the beginning of the 15th century should be connected with the rising class contraries in the towns. Patricians from the Sielsian towns saw in these pogroms the opportunity to lessen at least partially the discontent of the economic relations” .
At the beginning of the 15th century, competition between Jewish and Christian merchants got stronger. Jewish enrichment caused growing discontent and tension among bourgeoisie, who complained on Silesian Jews to the authorities in Vienna. Using the unfavorable atmosphere in relation to Jews, the town Głogówek accepted the privilege De non tolerandis Judeis issued by Czech king Wladislaw at the turn of the 15th and the 16th centuries . In spite of this, mergrave George Hohenzollern tried not to expel Jews from the territory of his Oppeln-Ratibor principality. He explained to the bourgeoisie the
The settlement of Glogovia was first mentioned in 1076. Glogowek was granted town rights in 1275 by the Upper Silesia prince Vladislaus I. Its favorable position by the amber route positively influenced the town’s economic development. From 1327 Glogowek was under Czech rule and shared the political fate of Silesia. In 1428 the town was burnt by the Hussites. In 1478 the town was completely destroyed by fire. Till 1532 Glogowek was under the rule of the princes of Opole and Raciborz and from 1562 it passed under the rule of the Oppersdorff family. In 1582 the town was again destroyed by fire. Between 1595 and 1810 it belonged to the Oppersdorff family, with pro-Polish affinities.
The town suffered severe damages from fire in 1633 and from the plague in 1645. During the Swedish attack in 1655 Franciszek Euzebiusz Oppersdorff offered shelter to the Polish King Jan Kazimierz and to his wife Ludwika (October 17th- December 18th 1655). In 1742 the town was incorporated into Prussia under the German name Oberglogau. In 1765 a big fire destroyed almost the whole town. In 1806 the famous composer Ludwig van Beethoven spent some time in Glogowek, he wrote the 4th Symphony there. During the Napoleonic wars in 1807 Bavarian soldiers were stationed in Glogowek. In the 19th century the town flourished as a fruit and vegetable cultivation center. Industry started to develop only when a railway line was opened in 1876.
During World War II, in March 1945 the Soviet Army surrounded an SS division near Głogowek, which after heavy fights managed to cross the Czech border. During the fights Glogowek was bombed and severely destroyed.