Polska / dolnośląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||głogowski / Glogau (before 1939)|
|Community:||Głogów / Glogau (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Glogau [j.niemiecki]; גלוגוב [j. hebrajski]; גלוגא [j. jidysz]|
Głogów is the seat of a county situated in Lower Silesia Province. It is located in the Głogowska Proglacial Valley on the Dałkowskie Hills, on the Odra River.
Głogów is situated about 34 miles north-east of Zielona Góra (Grünberg.) The first Jewish settlers came here in the 1750s. They were mainly merchants and tradesmen, who took advantage of its location along important trade routes to Poland and Russia. In 1299 Henry III, duke of the Duchy of Silesia, granted Jewish locals first privileges allowing them to live in town and giving them the same rights as Christian merchants at that time. Religious, economic and legal matters were governed by 34 paragraphs that concerned rights and obligations of the citizens.
In 1406 one Jew from Głogów was accused of ritual murder and desecration of the Host. He stood trial whereas Jewish settlers were temporarily expelled from the town. The Jews finally came back but the relationship between them and other town dwellers were not necessarily friendly. In the 15th century the Jewish district was attacked and burnt down twice by a hostile mob. Never again did the situation improve, hostility was still present and ongoing disputes often ended in expulsion of Jewish settlers from the town. In 1598 Benedikt Israel, a wealthy Jewish merchant, was granted by emperor Rudolf II a privilege that gave his family and him rights to settle down and freely trade in Głogów, which was the time of prosperity of Jewish community there. In the beginning, its members lived only within the district but, over time, they began to live in the territory of the entire town. The community saw to it that every successor of the emperor confirmed the privilege granted to Benedikt Israel, which was met with enthusiasm as the emperors hoped for benefits from the economic and financial power of the Jewish population. In early 17th century, in ca. 1600, there were solely 70 Jews living in Głogów. Little more than 100 years later, in 1725, the community grew much larger and consisted of 1,550 members. Its population remained the same till the 1850s. In 1756 there were 1,644 members living in the Jewish community, in 1791 its populace reached 1,800. Jews constituted as much as 25% of all the Jews in Silesia (Schlesien), and the community had the highest number of members in its entire history. In the early 19th century there were 1,500 Jews living in Głogów, but their percentage share in the entire town’s population was much smaller, i.e. 15%. The Jewish community was inhabit
The Glogoua stronghold on Wyspa Tumska (Tumska Island) existed already in the 9th c. It was a central settlement of the Dziadoszanie tribe, which later became part of the Polans’ state (Poland). In 1010, the stronghold was ravaged, while in 1017 – besieged by the German army. However, it was the later Defence of Głogów of 1109 that won more recognition. In 1157, Germans captured and burnt down the stronghold.
From 1251, it was the seat of the Duchy of Głogów. In 1253, it was granted the town charter based on the Magdeburg rights. From 1331, just as the whole Silesia, it became fief of the Czech state. Towards the end of the 16th c., it became an important centre of Protestantism. In the mid-17th c., the town was transformed into a fortress, which hampered its economic development. The fortress was captured by enemy forces a number of times. From 1740, Głogów was part of Prussia. In 1902, the town’s fortifications were pulled down. Under German rule the town’s name was Glogau.
During WWII, in late 1944, Germans transformed the town into a fortress. In the early 1945, 90% of buildings were destroyed as a result of intensive fights for the city.
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