Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||wielicki / wielicki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Gdów / Gdów (before 1939)|
|Other names:||G'dov [j.jidysz]|
Gdów – wieś gminna położona w południowej Polsce, w województwie małopolskim, w powiecie wielickim. Odległa 14 km na południowy wschód od Wieliczki, 30 km na południowy wschód od Krakowa, 319 km na południowy zachód od Warszawy.
Gdów was located on the trade route, at the crossroads of the Krakow and Imperial routes. Therefore, inns would be established there very early, thus resulting in the growth of the Jewish settlement in this area. In the 18th century, there were inns and taverns in Łazany, Sławkowice, Bilczyce, Zagórzany and Zręczyce. At that time in Gdów the Jewish stalls were run by Izaak Liebencheimer and Chaim Kepler, and the Inn Wisielówka – by Aaron Reisman, with the latter being situated by the Kraków route. In the mid-19th century, the Jewish population was 376, thus constituting 25 % of total population. The Jewish settlement in Gdów in the 19th century was encouraged by both economic and political factors. These were, on the one hand, the liberal regulations of Austrian legislation, and the policy of the manor owners who were eager to sell or lease manor lands to Jews, on the other hand. Such lands were, for instance, managed by the families of Liebenchaimers, Leibe Heller or Leibe Lahrfeld. The right to fish in the River Raba by virtue of the special decree of 1885, was given to Mendek Kuniholz. The presence of Jews was also noticed by Poles, hence their participation in municipal authorities.
Jews had their representatives in the Municipal Council in 1876. There were three Jewish councilors: Leib Lehrfeld, Jakub Liebeheimer and Józef Liebencheimer.
However, the Jewish community played a special role in the development of trade, craft and small industry.
The brewery in Gdów was run by Meier Kornfeld and Salomon Haller, who employed 8 – 12 workers. They also owned a brickyard. Meier Kornfeld ran a beer bottling plant, as well. Moreover, a concrete plant was managed by Josue Liebenheunner. Craftsmen were mainly Jews: Abraham Weitzenhoff, among others, was a baker, and Mendek Windholz – a shochet.
A large group of Jews would be engaged in trade, both in the local stores located in the market square, in Bocheńska and Krakowska Streets, and at the times of fairs. In Gdów, fairs were held every second Wednesday, where one could purchase grain, animals, feathers, wood, meat, eggs, etc. A church fair took place on September 8. In the 19th century, in 1880, the market places were rented to Joseph and Saul Schroeiberom, for the sum of 260 rhenish zlotys. The market places were cleaned by Jews, as well. In the late 19th century
Adam Marczewski /
Firts mentions of the village Gdów date back to 1272 when the existance of a church was noted. Its founder was probably Gedko, Griffin coat of arms. Favourable location of the settlement on the crossroads of trade routes from Hungary to Cracow and from Bochnia to Myślenice was conducive to its development. Fishery on the Raba river, craft and commerce thrived in the settlement. In 1444, King Władysław of Varna granted the local church the right of benefice (this law was observed until the 19th century). Gdów was incorporated into the Austrian annexed territories. During the Cracow Uprising, on February 26, 1847, insurgents got involved in a battle with Austrian army. The insurgents were defeated in the battle and consequently the Austrian captured the nearby city, Wieliczka.