Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Places of martyrology||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||wielicki / wielicki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Gdów / Gdów (before 1939)|
|Other names:||G'dov [j.jidysz]|
Wieś gminna Gdów leży w powiecie wielickim, w centralnej części województwa małopolskiego.
Gdów was located on the trade route, at the crossroads of the Krakow and Imperial routes. Therefore, inns would be established there very early, thus resulting in the growth of the Jewish settlement in this area. In the 18th century, there were inns and taverns in Łazany, Sławkowice, Bilczyce, Zagórzany and Zręczyce. At that time in Gdów the Jewish stalls were run by Izaak Liebencheimer and Chaim Kepler, and the Inn Wisielówka – by Aaron Reisman, with the latter being situated by the Kraków route. In the mid-19th century, the Jewish population was 376, thus constituting 25 % of total population. The Jewish settlement in Gdów in the 19th century was encouraged by both economic and political factors. These were, on the one hand, the liberal regulations of Austrian legislation, and the policy of the manor owners who were eager to sell or lease manor lands to Jews, on the other hand. Such lands were, for instance, managed by the families of Liebenchaimers, Leibe Heller or Leibe Lahrfeld. The right to fish in the River Raba by virtue of the special decree of 1885, was given to Mendek Kuniholz. The presence of Jews was also noticed by Poles, hence their participation in municipal authorities.
Jews had their representatives in the Municipal Council in 1876. There were three Jewish councilors: Leib Lehrfeld, Jakub Liebeheimer and Józef Liebencheimer.
However, the Jewish community played a special role in the development of trade, craft and small industry.
The brewery in Gdów was run by Meier Kornfeld and Salomon Haller, who employed 8 – 12 workers. They also owned a brickyard. Meier Kornfeld ran a beer bottling plant, as well. Moreover, a concrete plant was managed by Josue Liebenheunner. Craftsmen were mainly Jews: Abraham Weitzenhoff, among others, was a baker, and Mendek Windholz – a shochet.
A large group of Jews would be engaged in trade, both in the local stores located in the market square, in Bocheńska and Krakowska Streets, and at the times of fairs. In Gdów, fairs were held every second Wednesday, where one could purchase grain, animals, feathers, wood, meat, eggs, etc. A church fair took place on September 8. In the 19th century, in 1880, the market places were rented to Joseph and Saul Schroeiberom, for the sum of 260 rhenish zlotys. The market places were cleaned by Jews, as well. In the late 19th century
Pierwsze wzmianki o wiosce Gdowa pochodzą z 1272 r. Odnotowano wówczas fakt istnienia kościoła, którego fundatorem prawdopodobnie był Gedka herbu Gryf. Rozwojowi osady sprzyjało korzystne położenie na skrzyżowaniu szlaków handlowych z Węgier do Krakowa i z Bochni do Myślenic. W osadzie rozwijało się rybołówstwo na rzece Raba, rzemiosło i kupiectwo. W 1444 r. król Władysław Warneńczyk nadał tutejszemu kościołowi prawo dożywotniego czerpania dochodu (przestrzegano go do XIX w.). W 1772 r. Gdów wszedł w ziemie austraickiego zaboru. Podczas powstania krakowskiego, w dniu 26 lutego 1847 pod Gdowem doszło do bitwy powstańców z wojskami austriackimi. Zakończyła się ona porażką powstańców krakowskich i w konsekwencji zajęciem pobliskiego miasta Wieliczka przez Austriaków.