Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / kieleckie (before 1939)|
|County:||miasto na prawach powiatu / będziński (before 1939)|
|Community:||Dąbrowa Górnicza / Dąbrowa Górnicza (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Dombrowa [j. niemiecki]; דומברובה גורניצ'ה [j. hebrajski]; Dombrove Gur [j. jidysz]|
Adam Marczewski /
Dąbrowa Górnicza - a city based with county rights in southern Poland, Silesian Province. It lies by the Czarna Przemsza and Biała Przemsza Rivers, 16 km southeast of Kawtowice and 281 km southwest of Warsaw.
Initially, in 1787, Dąbrowa was a small village with 184 inhabitants. Among them, there was a five-person Jewish family whose name or further history remains unknown . When Dąbrowa came under Prussian administration in 1795, the family was probably compelled to move to the city. A new policy compelled the Jews who lived in villages to move to the city within five years.
The local industry underwent rapid growth at the beginning of the 19th century. However, Dąbrowa did not transform into a city and continued to develop as a village. Jews, being forbidden to cultivate land, could not live here, but despite the bans, some Jewish workers did take up jobs in the local industry and mines. The products necessary for the local industry were brought from nearby Będzin, where trade and craft was entirely in the hands of Jews. In 1836, two Jewish merchants from Będzin, Salomon Brauner and Michael Szapito, were given permission to trade in Dąbrowa. They realized all kinds of orders for the industry. . In 1841, the authorities allowed the Będzin Jews to create permanent selling stalls in Dąbrowa. In 1860, Frochtcwajg and Abel Strudel from Będzin established a butcher’s shop at the “Reden” mine. The Jewish coachmen brought coal to Będzin from the mine in Dąbrowa. This was a sign of a gradual increase of the importance of Dąbrowa as an economic centre in which Jews from Będzin started to mark their presence more often.
In August 1862, a shoemaker from Będzin, Szmul Miodownik, was granted, as the first Jew, a permit of permanent residence in Dąbrowa. In 1863, the tradesmen Jakob Majman (alias Najman) and Kopel Koszenowski settled here, in 1866 – tailor Szmul Grat, in 1867 – Icchak Miodownik, in 1868 – baker Mordechai Lejb Miodownik and tradesmen Tewel Lenner and Josef Magier, and in 1869 – tradesman Szlomo Parasol. A coachman by the name of Szymon Sliwka lived in Reden in 1868 .
When the local industry started to flourish around 1870, Jewish specialists, along with tradesmen, craftsmen and poor workers began arriving in Dąbrowa, looking for a job. In 1870-80 the population census of Dąbrowa lists the following names: Dystylier, Gutman, Jungster, Kipelberg, Magierowicz, Melinowicz, Rechnic, Rozencwajg, Siwek, Szterner, Sztorchajn, Szwajcer, Frochtcwajg and Bitrich. In 1880-90, some
The village of Dąbrowa was first mentioned in 1726 when it was a small village situated at the border of a forested area. In the mid-18th century, deposits of bituminous coal were discovered in the area of the village and their exploitation started. In 1787, it had 184 inhabitants . It was under Prussian occupation as of 1795. The first mine called “Reden” began its activity in 1796. A working settlement, which assumed the same name, was created in 1806 near the mine. In 1815, Dąbrowa was annexed to the Kingdom of Poland. A turning point for Dąbrowa took place in 1816 when Stanisław Staszic became the chief executive of industry, trade and labor in the Kingdom of Poland. He launched a far-reaching project aimed at expanding Poland, in which Dąbrowa was supposed to play an important role as an industrial center. Moreover, it became a seat of the Zagłębie industry. A zinc works and another mine called “Ksawery” were opened here in 1823 and 1825, respectively. Around the year 1870, economic changes started to occur in Dąbrowa. State-owned industrial plants became companies and were taken over by private investment companies, mostly French ones. A few new factories were built as well. These changes attracted to Dąbrowa a number of experts and workers. The Austrian army occupied Dąbrowa during World War I. In 1916, Dąbrowa was granted civic rights, and three years later, in 1919, it was renamed Dąbrowa Górnicza.
The Germans occupied Dąbrowa Górnicza at the time of World War II, in September 1939. On 8 October 1939, the city was incorporated into the Third Reich. There were prisoners of war camps in the city where people were forced to work in armament factories. On 27 January 1945, the Soviet troops occupied Dąbrowa Górnicza, and then the city returned to Poland.