Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / kieleckie (before 1939)|
|County:||Częstochowa / Częstochowa (before 1939)|
|Community:||Częstochowa / Częstochowa (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Chenstochov [jidysz]; צ'נסטוחובה [j. hebrajski]; Ченстохова [j. rosyjski]|
Częstochowa – town in southern Poland in the Silesia (Sląsk) Province. It has city rights and is the center of Częstochowa County. It lies by the Warta River, 217 km west of Warsaw and 76 km north of Katowice.
The first mention of Jewish settlement in Częstochowa dates back to the beiginning 18th century, even though the city had a de non tolerandis Judaeis privilege, which was in force throughout the pre-partition period, but was then repealed as part of the Great Sejm reforms (1778-1882).
One of the first preserved historical documents confirming the presence of Jews in city mentions a contract between a Jew, Mosiek, and the city’s Mayor and Council. The contract refers to a loan granted to the city in order to fund a payment imposed by the Swedes in 1705. In exchange, the city authorities allowed Mosiek to live in Old Częstochowa for as long as it took for the loan to be repaid. In 1765, 56 Jewish families lived in Częstochowa.
In the mid-18th century, Jacob Frank (1726-1791), the famous leader of the Frankist movement was kept in the local prison. In 1760, a rabbinical court found him guilty of blasphemy and he was sentenced to prison in Częstochowa. He he spent thirteen years there until he was freed by the Russian General Bibikov. Despite his imprisonment, Jacob Frank gathered a number of supporters in Częstochowa.
Most probably during the reign of the King Stanisław Poniatowski (1764-1794), Jews were engaged in small trade and weaving. They came under the authority of the kehilla in Janów – Jews who died in Częstochowa were also buried at the cemetery there. The prayer-house was established in N. Berman's private apartment at Stary Rynek Square 15. It was closed in 1765 when the Old Synagogue was built (at the corner of ul. Nadrzeczna 32 and ul. Mirowska).
The situation for Jews in Częstochowa began to improve after 1793, when the Poland was partitioned and Częstochowa came under Prussian control. An independent Jewish Community Council was created in 1798 and, a year later, a Jewish cemetery was established. In 1806, a Jewish school was opened. When, in 1806, Częstochowa became part of the Principality of Warsaw, 496 Jews were living in the town (14.8% of the total population). With the Częstochowa district, there were 1,310 Jews (18.8%). This indicates that one third of the local Jews lived in the city. The Jewis
Miastem zaopiekowali się:
In honour of his parents Wolf and Dora (nee Moszkowicz) Rajcher and in memory of all members of the Rajcher and Moszkowicz families who perished in the Holocaust.
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