Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / kieleckie (before 1939)|
|County:||Częstochowa / Częstochowa (before 1939)|
|Community:||Częstochowa / Częstochowa (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Čenstochová [j. czeski]|
צ'נסטוחובה [j. hebrajski]
Tschenstochau [j. niemiecki]
Ченстохова [j. rosyjski]
Częstochowa – a city in southern Poland in the Silesia (Sląsk) Province. It has city rights and is the center of Częstochowa County. It lies by the Warta River, 217 km east of Warsaw and 76 km north of Katowice.
Adam Marczewski /
It is difficult to specify a date of the beginning of Jewish settlement in Częstochowa. The city had the de non tolerandis Judaeis privilege, however first Jews came here probably about the year 1700. In 1756, 56 Jewish families lived in the city.
One of the first historical references confirming the presence of Jews in town mentions a contract between a Jew called Mosiek and the town’s mayor and council. The contract regarded a loan to the town in order to repay the contribution imposed on the town by the Swedes in 1705. In exchange the town's authorities allowed Mosiek to live in the Old Częstochowa for as long, as the debt would be paid off.
In the mid-18th c. Jacob Frank was kept in the local prison (1726-1791). In 1760 the rabbinic court found this famous leader of the frankist movement guilty of blasphemy. He was sent to prison in Częstochowa where he spent 13 years, until he was freed by the Russian general Bibikov. Despite being imprisoned, Jacob Frank gathered a numerous group of its adherents in Częstochowa.
Probably during the reign of the king Stanisław Poniatowski (1764-1794) the Jews were engaged in small trade and weaving. They were under the authority of the kehilla in Janów – the Jews who died in Częstochowa were also buried at the cemetery there. The first house of prayer was created in N. Berman's private apartment in the 15 Stary Rynek square. It was closed in 1765 when an Old Synagogue was built (corner of 32 Nadrzeczna Street and Mirowska Street).
After 1793 when the town was in the Prussian part of partitioned Poland, the situation of Jews in Częstochowa began to improve. In 1798, an independent Jewish community was created, and a year later a Jewish cemetery was established. In 1806 a Jewish school was opened. When Częstochowa became part of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1806, a report was prepared which showed that 496 Jews were living in the town – 14,8% of the total population. In the whole administrative district of Częstochowa lived 1310 Jews – 18,8% of the total population of the region. It means that one third of local Jews lived in the town. The Jewish community in the nearest villages was approximately 2% of the population.
At the beginning of the 19th c. many German craftsmen and capitalists from Silesia came to Częstchowa. Jews were also
The mention of the princely village of Częstochowa dates back to 1220. Lying on Warta River, it was at the crossroads of trade-routes from Kraków to Kalisz and Poznań.
In 1356, Częstochowa gained the status of a locality under Średzki legislation (a variation of German law applied in central Silesia. In 1370, the Częstochowa region became part of the fiefdom of Prince Władysław Opolczyk and, in that same year, Częstochowa gained city-status.
The existence of an ironworks here dates back to 1377. By the latter part of the 14th Century, the Częstochowa ironworks and iron ore mine were known throughout the country.
In 1382, the Pauline monastery of Jasna Góra was established (an important centre of the Marian cult).
In 1393, Częstochowa became a Royal Burgh.
In 1430, Czech and Moravian marauders attacked the town and plundered the monastery (among other things, they stripped the picture of the Holy Mother with its gold crown and fittings). In 1531, a fortified wall was built around the town and, in 1620, the building of fortifications began on Jasna Góra. In the second half of the 17th Century, the settlement of Częstochówka, attached to the monastery, was established. In 1655, the Swedish army tried unsuccessfully to capture the Jasna Góra monastery (the siege of the fortress lasted 40 days).
In 1717, Częstochówka gained monastic-city status under the name of “Nowa Częstochowa”.
In 1769, the Bar Confederation Defenders of King Stanisław Poniatowski occupied the Jasna Góra fortress. At their head, in 1770, was Kazimierz Pułaski, who successfully commanded the defence of the fortress against Russian armies (in January 1771, the Russians retreated from Częstochowa). In 1793, Częstochowa found itself annexed to Prussia. The Prussians confiscated the monastic property and granted Nowa Częstochowa city-status.
In July1807, General Dąbrowski’s Polish army entered the city which, as a result, then became part of the Warsaw Principality. When, in 1815 Częstochowa was occupied by the Russian army, Tsar Aleksander I ordered that the Jasna Góra fortifications be demolished and the city became part of Congress Poland.
In 1826, Częstochowa and New Częstochowa were merged into a single town. The establishment, in 1846, of the Warsaw-Vienna railway opened up a new chapter in the devel
Miastem zaopiekowali się:
In honour of his parents Wolf and Dora (nee Moszkowicz) Rajcher and in memory of all members of the Rajcher and Moszkowicz families who perished in the Holocaust.
With your financial contribution towards the development of a town description, a photo documentation or other activities, you will be awarded a donation certificate.