Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Places of martyrology||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / kieleckie (before 1939)|
|County:||Częstochowa / Częstochowa (before 1939)|
|Community:||Częstochowa / Częstochowa (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Čenstochová [j. czeski]|
צ'נסטוחובה [j. hebrajski]
Tschenstochau [j. niemiecki]
Ченстохова [j. rosyjski]
Częstochowa is the capital of Częstochowa County in Silesia. It lies in the western edge of the Krakowska Upland, upon the Warta River.
It is difficult to establish the exact time of the beginning of Jewish settlement in Częstochowa. The city had been given the right of “de non tolerandis Judaeis” (non-tolerance of Jews), yet, probably, the first Jews appeared here around 1700.
Kazimierz Rędziński indicates the beginnings of Jewish settlement in Częstochowa in the early years of the 18th Century. His conclusions rely on hidden documents which tell of a contract between Moses the Jew and the Mayor and City Council regarding a contribution to the repayment of a loan imposed on the city by the Swedes in 1705. In return, the civic authorities permitted Moses the Jew to live in Old Częstochowa until such time as they had repaid their debt to him.
Midway through the 18th Century, Jacob Frank (1726-1791) was in a local prison. This famous leader of the Frankist movement was found guilty of blasphemy by a rabbinical court in 1760. He was sent to prison in Częstochowa where he spent 13 years until he was released by Russian General Bibikov. Despite his imprisonment, Jacob Frank gathered around himself, in Częstochowa, a large group of followers, in addition to his wife and family.
It is probable that, during the reign King Stanisław Poniatowski (ruling in the years 1764-1794), Jews had already settled in Częstochowa. Information exists to indicate that, in 1765, 51 Jewish families lived in the town, working as small traders and weavers. They came under the authority of the Kehillah in Janów where Jews, who died in Częstochowa, were buried. The first prayer room was established in the apartment of N Berman at No.15 Old Market Square. The prayer room ceased to operate in 1765 when the Old Synagogue was built on the corner of No.32 Nadrzecznej Street and Mirowski Street.
The situation for Jews in Częstochowa began to improve after 1793 when the city found itself annexed to Prussia. In 1798, an independent Jewish community council came into being and, a year later, a Jewish cemetery was established in the city. In 1806, a Jewish school was opened. When, in 1806, Częstochowa became part of the Warsaw Principality, a report prepared at the time spoke of the fact that 496 Jews lived in the city, comprising 14.8% of the total population. In the whole administrative district of Częstochowa, there lived 1,310 Jews, comprising 18.8% of the total population. This indicate
The mention of the princely village of Częstochowa dates back to 1220. Lying on Warta River, it was at the crossroads of trade-routes from Kraków to Kalisz and Poznań.
In 1356, Częstochowa gained the status of a locality under Średzki legislation (a variation of German law applied in central Silesia. In 1370, the Częstochowa region became part of the fiefdom of Prince Władysław Opolczyk and, in that same year, Częstochowa gained city-status.
The existence of an ironworks here dates back to 1377. By the latter part of the 14th Century, the Częstochowa ironworks and iron ore mine were known throughout the country.
In 1382, the Pauline monastery of Jasna Góra was established (an important centre of the Marian cult).
In 1393, Częstochowa became a Royal Burgh.
In 1430, Czech and Moravian marauders attacked the town and plundered the monastery (among other things, they stripped the picture of the Holy Mother with its gold crown and fittings). In 1531, a fortified wall was built around the town and, in 1620, the building of fortifications began on Jasna Góra. In the second half of the 17th Century, the settlement of Częstochówka, attached to the monastery, was established. In 1655, the Swedish army tried unsuccessfully to capture the Jasna Góra monastery (the siege of the fortress lasted 40 days).
In 1717, Częstochówka gained monastic-city status under the name of “Nowa Częstochowa”.
In 1769, the Bar Confederation Defenders of King Stanisław Poniatowski occupied the Jasna Góra fortress. At their head, in 1770, was Kazimierz Pułaski, who successfully commanded the defence of the fortress against Russian armies (in January 1771, the Russians retreated from Częstochowa). In 1793, Częstochowa found itself annexed to Prussia. The Prussians confiscated the monastic property and granted Nowa Częstochowa city-status.
In July1807, General Dąbrowski’s Polish army entered the city which, as a result, then became part of the Warsaw Principality. When, in 1815 Częstochowa was occupied by the Russian army, Tsar Aleksander I ordered that the Jasna Góra fortifications be demolished and the city became part of Congress Poland.
In 1826, Częstochowa and New Częstochowa were merged into a single town. The establishment, in 1846, of the Warsaw-Vienna railway opened up a new chapter in the devel
Miastem zaopiekowali się:
In honour of his parents Wolf and Dora (nee Moszkowicz) Rajcher and in memory of all members of the Rajcher and Moszkowicz families who perished in the Holocaust.
With your financial contribution towards the development of a town description, a photo documentation or other activities, you will be awarded a donation certificate.