Czerwińsk nad Wisłą
Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / warszawskie (before 1939)|
|County:||płoński / płoński (before 1939)|
|Community:||Czerwińsk nad Wisłą / Czerwińsk nad Wisłą (before 1939)|
Tomasz Kawski + izrael badacz
The commune village of Czerwińsk is situated in Płońsk County on the Vistula River, in Masovian Voivodeship. It has 1.200 inhabitants (as of 2006).
It is located at the junction of Płońsk Upland and the Valley of Warsaw, on the right, high bank of the Vistula.
Distances: Plock 50 km, Lodz 110 km, Warszawa 60 km
The Jews began inhabiting the town at the end of the eighteenth century. The district obtained its independence in the second half of the nineteenth century. The Jewish quarter embraced the northeastern part of town. There existed two cemeteries besides the synagogue raised in 1888, and the house of prayer. In 1882, a wave of anti-Semitism reached Czerwinsk. Luckily, the assault of the farm workers from Sielce on the Czerwinski Jews, which was planned to take place on April 12th, 1882, was prevented by the army.
In the spring of 1915, the Russians gave Jews the order to leave the town. During the interwar period N. Natan performed the duties of the rabbi. Following the outbreak of the war, some of the Jews escaped from Czerwinsk. Others, as a result of mass persecutions, did the same just after the German occupation of the town. Only a small group has remained in town. In 1940, a ghetto was formed. Three thousand four hundred Jews from Czerwinsk and the nearby towns were imprisoned there. In November 1940, 600 people were displaced from Wyszogrod.
In June 1941, some of the ghetto inhabitants were displaced to Nowy Dwor. Subsequent transports from Czerwinsk to Nowy Dwor, accounting for 2,600 Jews, arrived on October 28, 1942. In the first half of 1942, a cell of the Polish Worker’s Party has been established in the ghetto; it was led by Lewicki. It has operated until the liquidation of the ghetto. Some of the Jews were hiding or found refuge in the partisans divisions. The members of one of it, organized by the Gwardia Ludowa, were surprised in one of the local barns on September 15, 1943, and killed by the gendarmes. One of those killed, was Marian Berglan (pseudonym – Wanka Woroncow) who came from Czerwinsk. Only a few, who escaped from the transport, came back to Czerwinsk -- for example the Glicksman family. The Glicksmans were hiding in the Catholic Cemetery in one of the tombs. The parents, after some time, were killed by the Germans. The daughter, Marysia Glicksman was saved by Henryk Gortat from Czerwinsk. In 1979, he was honored by the order “The Righteous Among the Nations”.
The oldest record showing the existence of the Blessed Virgin Mary monastery (came into existence around the year 1150) and the market settlement next to it in Czerwinsk, dated 1155. The settlement, most likely at first belonged to a prince, and since the 13th century to the bishops of Płock. The representatives of the highest church and state government often visited the abbey, which influenced the development of Czerwinsk.
In 1138, the settlement was removed from the prince’s judiciary and was subjected to the bishop’s court. In 1373, in the Eastern part of Czerwinsk, bishop Stanislaw founded the bishop’s town under Chelminski’s law. The settlement of Czerwinsk was composed of the monastery, next to which since the 15th century a monastery settlement has been developed and of the bishop’s side along with the market settlement, which had formed the town.
In 1582, the monastic settlement has obtained its municipal rights. Its residents took up farming and trade. The privilege dating 1525 released the inhabitants from the fares for transportation of grain, timber and other articles transported on the Wisla, Narew and Bug toward Gdansk and Krakow.
The town has suffered during the Polish-Swedish wars of the 17th century. In 1737 the town owned 39 houses, in 1777 – 29, in 1788 – 77. Following 1795, the bishops’ lands became the property of the Prussian government. The regular cannon abbey existed until 1819. It was later replaced by the Norbertines from Plock. The order has survived until 1903. The town’s location by the often flooding Wisla as well as frequently occurring fires and plagues was not favorable towards its development. In 1870, Czerwinsk lost its municipal rights. Today it plays a central role in the local trade-service center for the farm’s facilities .
Geographical and administrative location:
Until the 18th century, Polish Kingdom, Mazowieckie Principality (until 1526), Plock Province
1807-1815 Warsaw Principality
1815-1918 Russia (Polish Kingdom), Plock Province (since 1837), Plonski County (since 1867)
1918-1939 Poland, Warsaw Province, Plonsk County
1945-1975 Warsaw Province