Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / kieleckie (before 1939)|
|County:||będziński / będziński (before 1939)|
|Community:||Czeladź / Czeladź (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Chelodz [jidysz]; צ'לדז [j. hebrajski]; Czeladź [j. niemiecki]|
Czeladź is a town located in the south of Poland, Silesian Province, Będzin County, upon the Brynica River. I lies 287 km south-west of Warsaw, 10 km north of Katowice, and 4 km east of Będzin.
In the thirteenth century, Czeladź was granted the de non tolerandis Iudeaeis privilege, which made it impossible for Jews to settle there. During the years 1443-1792 Czeladź was part of the Duchy of Siewierz (Księstwo Siewierskie) that was under the rule of Kraków bishops, and Jewish settlement on this territory was virtually impossible. The Jews were then living in Będzin, 4 km away. This situation did not change until the Second Partition of Poland (1793), as a result of which Czeladź fell under the reign of Prussia. Even though Frederick William III of Prussia allowed Jews to trade in the town, he prohibited them from settling there. In 1800 he issued the Regulation concerning the arrangement of Jewry in the Pilica and Siewierz District (Polish: Przepis względem urządzenia żydostwa w cyrkule pilickim i siewierskim), in which he ordered the expulsion of Jews who did not have a permanent place of residence, the listing of all local Jews, to issue passports to them and to give surnames to those Jews who until then had only used their names and the patronymic they had received during their circumcision. Because of these restrictions, until the mid-19th century there had been no reference to the Jewish presence in Czeladź.
In 1815, Czeladź became part of the Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland), which was subjected to the Russian Empire. Tsarist regulations required that Jews should have a special settlement permit in the border zone and at that time Czeladź was situated in the direct neighbourhood of the Prussian border. Nevertheless, the possibility of trading at the border of Upper Silesia attracted Jewish merchants and peddlers, who would visit borderland villages, selling their merchandise.
Legend names the Szwajger Family as the first Jewish family in Czeladź. They had permission to keep a shop but could not settle in the town. Other sources, however, say that the first Jewish citizen of Czeladź was Nachum Alter from Wolbrom, known as Nachum Alter Czeladzer or simply the Old Chołtyk (he lived at 6 Rynek Street). In the next years, the following families arrived in the town: the Fromers, Szwajcers, Klajners, Bermans, Rechnics, Sztrochlics, and Fiszmans. The first confirmed mention of Jews in Czeladź dates back to the year 1835 – a note in the records of the Registry Office of Będzin from 5 M
Czeladź is the oldest town in the Dąbrowa Basin. The first historical reference to the settlement called Czeladź dates back to 1228. The document referencing the settlement, which has survived to this day, was issued by Kazimierz Opolski and defined the borders of the village and listed the most important sites, such as ponds, the bridge over the Brynica River and an inn. The Tatars burnt down the settlement in 1241.
Czeladź was granted municipal rights in 1262. In 1318, the town belonged to the Duchy of Teschen; in 1443 it was incorporated into the estates owned by the Kraków bishops along with the entire Duchy of Siewierz. At the beginning of the 16th century, a new form of authority started to function in parallel to the preexisting hereditary position of the head of the town – it was the Town Council headed by the town’s mayor. There were several guilds in the town, but most of Czeladź inhabitants made their living from trade and farming. Czeladź was surrounded by fortified walls, whose fragments have been preserved to the present day. The Market Place with the building of the Town Hall towering over the site was the centre of the town].
In 1567, Czeladź became the centre of the Arian movement. On 9 March 1589, a treaty between Jan Zamoyski and Wilhelm von Rosenberg was signed in the Town Hall of Czeladź; by virtue of the treaty, Archduke Maximilian III of Austria renounced his claim to the Polish throne following his defeat by Jan Zamoyski’s troops in the battle of Byczyna in 1588. On 6 September 1589, the archduke confirmed the agreement on the bridge in Czeladź.
In 1655, the town was destroyed by Swedish troops. In 1790, the Duchy of Siewierz (including Czeladź) was incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Two years later, King Stanisław August Poniatowski made Czeladź a free town with a new coat of arms. In 1795, following the Third Partition of Poland, the town was annexed by Prussia and then, in 1807, became part of the Duchy of Warsaw.
In 1815, in accordance with the agreements of the Congress of Vienna, the town was incorporated into Russian-controlled Congress Poland. In 1870, the tsarist authorities deprived Czeladź of its town privileges, but the settlement did not fall into ruin thanks to hard coal deposits discovered in the area in the second half of the 1