Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Places of martyrology||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / kieleckie (before 1939)|
|County:||będziński / będziński (before 1939)|
|Community:||Czeladź / Czeladź (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Chelodz [jidysz]|
'צ'אלאדז [j. hebrajski]
Челядзь [j. rosyjski]
Czeladź is a town located in Będzin County, in Silesia. The town lies in the Silesian Upland, upon the Brynica River.
In the thirteenth century Czeladź was granted the "de non tolerandis Judeaes" privilege, which made it possible for Jews to settle down there. For this reason, until the mid-19th century, the has been no reference to Jewish presence in Czeladź. .
At the beginning of the nineteenth century Czeladź became part of the Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland), which was subjected to the Russian Empire. Tsarist regulations required that Jews have a special settlement permit in the border zone and at that time Czeladź was situated in the direct neighborhood of the Prussian border. Nevertheless, the opportunity for trading on the border of Upper Silesia attracted Jewish merchants and peddlers who would visit border villages, selling their merchandise. Jews from Czeladź had been first mentioned in 1836, although it was not until the mid-nineteenth century that Jews actually started to settle there. This was the period when hard-coal mining was developing rapidly and new industrial plants were being established. The flourishing town needed new workers. Meanwhile, the tsar's authorities suppressed the Polish January Uprising in 1863 and afterwards opened Czeladź for Jewish settlers, the bigger part of whom dealt with trade, but gradually more and more Jews were being hired in the mining industry. In the year 1867 62 Jews were living in Czeladź. A Jewish cemetery was established in 1880. By 1890, eight Jewish families were living in the town. .
At the beginning of the twentieth century a group of Jewish craftsmen, shopkeepers, and peddlers from Wolbrom, Żarki, Częstochowa, Olkusz, and Będzin settled in Czeladź. They provided various services for the growing population of Czeladź. The Jews from Czeladź were subject to a kahal in Będzin. In the beginning they did not have their own houses of prayer so they used to meet in private houses and the Hassidic shtibels of Wolmbrom, Gury, Radomsko and Kromołów. However, Będzin rabbi B. Graubart strove to facilitate access to religious services to the believers and supported establishing new houses of prayer. .
Very soon a proposal to establish their own independent community was put forward, but it was strongly objected by the Jews from Będzin. It was not until during the First World War that the German authorities recognized an independent Jewish community of Czeladź in 1914. Its first
Miłosz Gudra /
Czeladź is the oldest town in the Dąbrowa Basin. The first historical reference to the settlement called Czeladź is from 1228. The limits of the settlement were defined and the most important sites, such as ponds, the bridge over the Brynica River and an inn were all mentioned in a preserved document issued by Kazimierz Opolski. The Tatars burnt down the settlement in 1241. Czeladź was granted town privileges in 1262.
In 1318 the town belonged to the Duchy of Cieszyn and in 1443 along with the entire Duchy of Siewierz it was incorporated into the estates owned by the Kraków bishops. At the beginning of the 16th century, along the preexisting hereditary position of the head of the town (Polish: wójt), a new form of authority appeared and it was the Town Council which was headed by a mayor. A few guilds operated in the town but most of the people made their living by trading and farming. Czeladź was surrounded by fortified walls whose fragments have been preserved to the present day. The Market Place with the building of the Town Hall that towered over the site was the center of the town.]. Czeladź was the center of the Arian movement. On March 9, 1589 in the Town Hall of Czeladź a treaty was signed between Jan Zamoysky and Wilhelm von Rosenberg by virtue of which Archduke Maximilian III of Austria (in 1588 he was defeated by Jan Zamoyski’s troops in the fight of Byczyna) renounced his claim to the Polish throne. On September 6, 1589 the Archduke signed the agreement on the bridge in Czeladź.
In 1655 the Swedes destroyed the town. In 1790 the Duchy of Siewierz was incorporated and, by the same token, Czeladź was annexed to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Two years later, King Stanisław August Poniatowski made Czeladź a free town with a new coat of arms. From 1795 onwards, as a result of the third partition of Poland, the town found itself in the Prussian annexed territory, and from 1807 in the Duchy of Warsaw.
In 1815, following the sessions of the Congress of Vienna, the town was annexed to the Kingdom of Poland under the rule of Czarist Russia. In 1870, the Czarist authorities deprived Czeladź of its town privileges. Hard coal deposits were discovered in the second half of the 19th century and their extraction started in 1879.
During World War One, in 1915, Czeladź was seized by the German troops and it regained its town privile