Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||brzeski / brzeski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Czchów / Czchów (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Weißenkirchen [j. niemiecki]|
Czchów – miasto położone w południowej Polsce, w województwie małopolskim, w powiecie brzeskim. Odległe 20 km na południe od Brzeska, 78 km na południowy wschód od Krakowa, 331 km na południe od Warszawy. Leży nad Dunajcem.
According to “The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life before and during the Holocaust”, an independent Jewish community in Czchów was constituted towards the end of the 19th century. At that time there were about 250 Jews in the town, many of whom remained in the sphere on influence of the tzadik dynasty from Nowy Sącz.
Difficult economic conditions at the turn of the 20th century resulted in increased anti-Semitic tendencies. Czchów was no exception in this respect – in November 1918 the conflict escalated and the local peasantry rioted against Jews.
In the summer 1942 the Nazis deported people of Jewish descent from Czchów to other towns, and later on to extermination camps.
Miłosz Gudra /
The oldest written mention of Czchów dates back to the period between 1208 and 1218. According to the Calendar of Cracov's Chapter, the bishop, Wincent Kadłubek, made a decision that Chchów pay a tithe to the aforementioned chapter. This is also confirmed by Jan Długosz in his chronicle, who also added that those charters had been paid to the churches in Czchów and Brzezie. It appears that the town and the church had existed even earlier. Especially by the fact that, at the close of the 10th century, in the nearby town of Tropie, St Świerad, known both in Poland and Slovakia, ran a mission which indicates that there was an early settlement in the vicinity.
The existance of a parish in Czchów was first confirmed in 1325. In 1288, Czchów was mentioned as a part of the Tynieck monastery nestate, which was granted, by Prince Leszek the Great, a foundation charter based on Prussian law. In 1333, a certain Mikołaj was allowed by Wojsław I, also known as an alderman of Czchów, to build a watermill with two wheels. A witness to this event was the alderman's assistant, Rusco.
In 1355, the site was granted town status under Magdeburg law by Kazimierz the Great. In 1357, the king decided that the inhabitants would be punished by their alderman and town councillors according to Magdeburg law and, in doubtful cases, they would be able to appeal to German law court in Kraków. According to Długosz, thanks to Kazimierz the Great, the town was encircled by a wall. It was also the period of the beginning of German settler colonisation. According to the 1442 census, German names were rare which may indicate that the inhabitants were polonised. Also, the influx of people from nearby towns and villages created favorable conditions for polonisation. Thisas mentioned in a preserved book from the town.
Around 1346, a Gothic church was built in Czchów. Stone from the previous church was used during the construction which is indicated by the elements of Romanesque cornice set into the eastern wall of the present chancel. Loose blocks reamin which were used in building the Gothic buttress and, probably, the Romanesque stone sculptures: a lion – now in the Czchów's market sqaure and a low relief o