Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||lubliniecki / Lublinitz (before 1939)|
|Community:||Koszęcin / Koschentin (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Czieschowa [j. niemiecki]; צ'שובה [j. hebrajski]|
Cieszowa - a village in southern Poland, Silesian Province, Lubliniec County. It lies 254 km southwest of Warsaw, 59 km north of Katowice, and 16 km east of Lubliniec.
The beginnings of the Jewish presence in Cieszowa date back to the first half of the 14th century. The Jews who settled here came from the West. They brought along western patterns of social and political life in a state as well as customs, religious rites and the language of the Ashkenazi Jews (אַשְׁכְּנָזִים in Hebrew, the word “Ashkenazi” refers to Germany, the country of their origin).
In the 15th century, most Jews occupied themselves with trade and financial loans granted to Silesian dukes (at that time, a canonical ban on the collection of interests from financial loans was in force all over Christian Europe). Some Jews also ran small craft workshops and shops.
When in 1526 Silesia was governed by the German emperors, also Jews were subjected to their rule.
At the beginning of the 16th century, the competition between the Jewish and Christian merchants increased in Silesia. The fact that Jews grew rich created discontent and tensions amongst townsmen, who filed numerous complaints against the Silesian Jews to the imperial authorities in Vienna.
On September 14, 1559, Emperor Ferdinand I issued an imperial edict expelling Jews from the Habsburg hereditary lands, i.e. Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, among other things. Since then, the Jewish people could not take up official residence in Silesia. However the edict was not commonly observed. Moreover, Jews had separate enclaves in which they could live and these included the towns of Głogów, Biała Prudnicka in Silesia and Osobłóda in Opawa Silesia . The Jewish people must also have left Cieszowa at that time.
The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) led to the depopulation of many Silesian towns. Aiming at improving the financial situation of the country, Emperor Ferdinand tempered the policy toward Jews in 1627. He issued an edict allowing them to resettle in towns after paying a special fee of 40 thousand guldens. The edict also allowed a selected group of privileged Jews (privilegire Juden), who were also called court Jews (Hofjuden), to carry out conditional trade and craft activities. The emperor also gave them permission to lease the collection of taxes and duties and to purchase houses as their own properties .
In May 1713, Emperor Charles VI issued a tolerance edict (Toleranzpatent), which allowed Jews to settle in
The first records on the village of Cieszowa come from the 14th century, but most probably the settlement had already existed earlier.