Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||lubliniecki / Lublinitz (before 1939)|
|Community:||Koszęcin / Koschentin (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Czieschowa [j. niemiecki]; צ'שובה [j. hebrajski]|
Cieszowa - a village in southern Poland, Silesian Province, Lubliniec County. It lies 254 km southwest of Warsaw, 59 km north of Katowice, and 16 km east of Lubliniec.
The beginnings of the Jewish community of Cieszowa date back to the mid-14th century. Probably there was a school and a Jewish cemetery in Cieszowa already in the 14th century. Marcin Wodziński holds a different opinion and believes that the oldest cemetery dates back to the 17th century as he notes after Marcus Brann that information on such origins of the community is based solely on tradition.
After the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), a number of Silesian towns were left depopulated. Trying to bring more money to the state's coffers, the Habsburgs introduced a more moderate policy towards Jews, allowing them to settle down in Silesia upon payment of a special fee. In ca. 1741, a wooden synagogue was built in Cieszowa. The rabbi's house, which also housed a Jewish school, stood beside the synagogue.
During the First Silesian War, in 1742, most of Silesia became part of Prussia. Initially, Prussian authorities were indifferent towards Silesian Jews, but with time Frederick II's policy towards them became more strict. Various taxes were introduced which provided financial benefits for the state. During the Seven-Years' War (1756-1763), Prussia's economic situation became very difficult. In order to alleviate the consequences of the economic crisis, the Prussian authorities offered special privileges to the richest Jewish factory owners and businessmen. They received the right to naturalize, but the privileges were applicable to a very small group. Records show that Jews living in Cieszowa paid six guilders in tolerance tax in 1757 (Tolerazsteuer) .
On 8 August 1781, Prussian King Frederick II expelled Jews from Upper Silesian villages, ordering them to go to cities and deal with trade only . An exception was made in the case of four villages: Langendorf (Polish: Wielowieś), Czieschowa (Cieszowa), Kraskau (Krasków) and Städtel, mistakenly interpreted as Sośnicowice, while in fact it was the village of Miejsce. In 1787, Prussian authorities withdrew the regulations regarding the resettlement of Jews to designated resettlement towns as the locations they had left suffered too serious economic losses. Additionally, in 1791 Jews were allowed to establish their own craftsmen’s guilds.
In February 1808, Prussian authorities abolished all feudal privileges of guilds and cities, including de non tole
The first records on the village of Cieszowa come from the 14th century, but most probably the settlement had already existed earlier.