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Cieszowa

Polska / śląskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:śląskie / inne (before 1939)
County:lubliniecki / Lublinitz (before 1939)
Community:Koszęcin / Koschentin (before 1939)
Other names:Czieschowa [j. niemiecki]; צ'שובה [j. hebrajski]
 
GPS:
50.6703° N / 18.8364° E
50°40'13" N / 18°50'11" E

Location

izrael.badacz.org /

Cieszowa - a village in southern Poland, Silesian Province, Lubliniec County. It lies 254 km southwest of Warsaw, 59 km north of Katowice, and 16 km east of Lubliniec.

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History

Adam Marczewski

The beginnings of the Jewish community of Cieszowa date back to the mid-14th century. Probably there was a school and a Jewish cemetery in Cieszowa already in the 14th century.  Marcin Wodziński holds a different opinion and believes that the oldest cemetery dates back to the 17th century as he notes after Marcus Brann that information on such origins of the community is based solely on tradition.

After the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), a number of Silesian towns were left depopulated. Trying to bring more money to the state's coffers, the Habsburgs introduced a more moderate policy towards Jews, allowing them to settle down in Silesia upon payment of a special fee. In ca. 1741, a wooden synagogue was built in Cieszowa. The rabbi's house, which also housed a Jewish school, stood beside the synagogue.

During the First Silesian War, in 1742, most of Silesia became part of Prussia. Initially, Prussian authorities were indifferent towards Silesian Jews, but with time Frederick II's policy towards them became more strict. Various taxes were introduced which provided financial benefits for the state. During the Seven-Years' War (1756-1763), Prussia's economic situation became very difficult. In order to alleviate the consequences of the economic crisis, the Prussian authorities offered special privileges to the richest Jewish factory owners and businessmen. They received the right to naturalize, but the privileges were applicable to a very small group. Records show that Jews living in Cieszowa paid six guilders in tolerance tax in 1757 (Tolerazsteuer) .

On 8 August 1781, Prussian King Frederick II expelled Jews from Upper Silesian villages, ordering them to go to cities and deal with trade only . An exception was made in the case of four villages: Langendorf (Polish: Wielowieś), Czieschowa (Cieszowa), Kraskau (Krasków) and Städtel, mistakenly interpreted as Sośnicowice, while in fact it was the village of Miejsce. In 1787, Prussian authorities withdrew the regulations regarding the resettlement of Jews to designated resettlement towns as the locations they had left suffered too serious economic losses. Additionally, in 1791 Jews were allowed to establish their own craftsmen’s guilds.

In February 1808, Prussian authorities abolished all feudal privileges of guilds and cities, including de non tole

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Local history

Miłosz Gudra /

The mention of the village of  Cieszowa dates back to the beginning of the 14th century. Around 1305, the village arose under the Latin name of Cessova w Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis ("Wrocław Bishopric Remuneration Book”). In the 14th century, it came under Czech rule and the first Jews appeared here midway through that century.

In 1526, Cieszowa was included inside the Habsburg monarchy. The first Protestant church was built here in 1598. In the following century, as the result of the successful Counter-Reformation, the village was taken over by the Catholics. St.Marcin's church was built in 1751, a timber building which still stands to this day. As a result of the Śląskie Wars, Cieszowa, together with a majority of Śląsk territory, came under Prussian rule in 1742.

In 1855, the village had 499 residents – 476 Catholics, 18 Jews and 9 Evangelicals.

In 1921, as the result of the successful Third Śląsk Rebellion, the village, together with the entire Lubliniec DIstrict, was incorporated into the reborn Polish Republic.

In 1980, the church of St Marcin becam e an independent parish.

In 2005, at the initiative of the residents, a statue of the villages patron, St.Urban was erected on this site of the old synagogue (which was dismantled in 1911). The statue was to mark the village's 700th anniversary. Today, Cieszowa has less than three hundred residents.

 

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Volkmar Schiewe

 
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