Polska / mazowieckie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Places of martyrology||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||mazowieckie / warszawskie (before 1939)|
|County:||ciechanowski / ciechanowski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Ciechanów / Ciechanów (before 1939)|
The city of Ciechanów is the capital of Ciechanów County, Masovian Province. It has a population of 45.4 thousand (as of 2008).
It is located on the Ciechanów Upland, on the River Łydynia (left-bank tributary of the River Wkra).
The Jews living in Ciechanów were first mentioned in 1569. In 1765, 1.670 Jews lived here. At the beginning of the 19th century, Jewish people started to move from the country to the towns. It led to further economic development of Ciechanów.
In 1827, 1.644 Jews lived here, which made 62% of the whole population. In 1857 the number increased to 2.241 Jews (66% of the whole population). Towards the end of the 19th century Ciechanów was an important center of the Hasidic movement, gathered around a tsaddik –Abraham Rafael Landau. The synagogue was erected in Zakroczymska Street. In 1908, 4.753 Jews lived here, which made 58% of the whole population.
In 1921, 4.403 Jewish people lived in Ciechanów, which made 37% of the population.
During World War II, in September 1939, Ciechanów was occupied by the German Army. The name Ciechanów was changed into Zichenau. There was a garage in the synagogue. In fall of 1940, a ghetto was formed in Ciechanów and the synagogue was pulled down by the Germans. In December 1941, 1.200 Jews were deported to the ghetto in Nowe Miasto. In summer of 1942, the Jews were taken to the ghetto in Maków Mazowiecki.
In November 1942 a ghetto closedown took place. All the Jews from Ciechanów were taken to the ghetto in Mława.
The fortified town was first mentioned in 1605. From 1349 to 1526 it was the capital of the duchy. About 1400 Ciechanów was granted its town charter. About 1420 a castle was erected here. In 1526 Ciechanów was transferred to Poland.
In the 17th and 18th centuries the town was destroyed by the Swede, Russian and Saxon Armies many times. Since 1795 Ciechanów was under Russian rule, since 1807 it transferred to the Duchy of Warsaw, since 1815 it belonged to the Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland). During World War I heavy fighting between the Russian and German armies took place near Ciechanów(November 1914-July 1915).
In the interwar period, in August 1920, there was a lot of heavy fighting between the Polish and Bolshevik Armies
During World War II, in September 1939, Ciechanów was occupied by the German Army. The name was changed into Zichenau. In January 1945 Ciechanów was liberated by the Soviet Army.
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