Chorzów (d. Królewska Huta)
Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Places of martyrology||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / śląskie autonomiczne (before 1939)|
|County:||miasto na prawach powiatu / katowicki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Chorzów / Chorzów (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Królewska Huta [lata 1922-1934]|
Königshütte [j. niemiecki]
חוז'וב - עד 1934 קרולבסקה הוטה [j. hebrajski]
Хожув Крулевска-Хута [j. rosyjski]
Adam Marczewski /
Chorzów – a city with county rights in southern Poland, in the Silesian Province. It lies 228 km southwest of Warsaw, 9 km northwest of Katowice, by the Rawa river (in the Upper Sileasian urban area).
In 1790, following the orders of the Higher Mining Office in Wrocław, a mining engineer, Salmosn Izaac, worked in the area of the Silesian towns of Zabrze, Chorzów and Ruda Śląska. He was a sworn miner and geologist, searching for new seams of hard coal. Thanks to him, rich seams of coal were discovered between Zaborze and Pawłowo. In Chorzów, a state owned mine called "König" was established.
The first records of Jews living in Królewska Huta (present Chorzów) date back to 1829. In 1860, there were around 600 Jews living in Chorzów. They were under the jurisdiction of the Bytom Kahal. In 1865, an independent Jewish community was created. It included the Jewish inhabitants of Chorzów, Łagiewniki, Hajduki, Świętochłowice, Nowa Wieś and Lipiny. In 1874, an impressive Reform synagogue was built in Wolności Street.
In the Interwar period, in 1922, Królewska Huta was annexed to Poland. Many German Jews left the city and went to Germany at that time. Polish Jews settled in their place.
In October 1924, a split between the Polish and German Jews took place. The Polish Jews won the elections for community representatives, which the German Jews found outrageous. A group of 70 most influential and wealthy German Jews left the meeting and stopped coming to the synagogue. At that time, Dr Goldschmidt was the Rabbi of Chorzów. After these events, he left the town. Since then, Dr Chaskel Lewin, a rabbi coming from Katowice, led the prayers.
In 1931, there were around 2811 Jews living in the town. After 1933, many German Jews escaping from Nazi persecutions returned to Chorzów.
During World War II, in September 1939, the town was occupied by the German army. In December 1939, the Nazi forced most Jews to leave Chorzów and settle mainly in Dąbrowa Górnicza. Before the end of 1939, the Germans burned and dismantled the synagogue. On June 15, 1940, the majority of Chorzów Jews were deported to Olkusz. Others were taken to the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp .
The first historical note of a village called Zversov dates back to 1136. In 1257 a village of Chorzów (Chareu) was established. Since 1327 the village was under Czech rule and shared the same political fate as the whole Silesia. Since the 16th century deposits of both silver and lead ores were exploited in the region. In 1778 coal deposits were discovered in Chorzów, soon after that the centre of metallurgy was developed. In 1799 the name of the village was changed into Konigshutte (Królewska Huta). In 1869 Konigshutte was granted a charter.
From 1919 to 1921 the inhabitants of the town took part in the Silesian Uprisings. As a result of the plebiscite in 1922 Konigshutte was incorporated into Poland and the town changed its name into Królewska Huta. In 1934 the area of the town was enlarged and the name was changed into Chorzów.
During World War II in September 1939 Chorzów was occupied by the German army. In December 1939 the Germans made the majority of the Jews leave the town and move mainly to Dąbrowa Górnicza. The rest of the Jews were deported to Olkusz on 15 June 1940.
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