Polska / dolnośląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||legnicki / Goldberg (before 1939)|
|Community:||Chojnów / Haynau (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Haynau [j.niemiecki]|
Province: Lower Silesia, county: Legnica, municipality: Chojnów.
The first records of the Jews in Chojnów come from 1320. According to Marcus Brann, the Duke of Legnica, Bolesław III, pawned the town to the Jews for 5,000 Marks. There is no data on the creation of a large Jewish community in the town. What is more, a register of Wrocław Jews – taxpayers of 1351-1356 includes Salomon from Chojnów who is likely to have moved to the town much earlier.
In 1370, Chojnów was mentioned in the privilege granted by Agnieszka, Duchess of Świdnica. It provided the freedom of religion to the Jews from the Dutchy of Świdnica, who lived in Bolesławiec, Dzierżoniów, Jawor, Jelenia Góra, Kamienna Góra, Lwówek Śląski, Niemcza, Strzegom, Świdnica, and Chojnów.
The Jews of Chojnów most likely left the town due to the wave of persecutions that swept through in Lower Silesia. They were instigated by the visit of Jan Kapistran, a Franciscan monk, in 1453.
In modern times, the Jews settled in Chojnów already in the late 18th century.
After the emancipation edict of 1812 came in force, a Jewish kehilla was established in the town.
During WWI, Jews from Chojnów took part in military actions.
The Jews of Chojnów were engaged in trade, crafts, and banking. Among them were Lachmann and Ohnstein, who owned a mustard factory in Reja Street. Ohnstein was also a town alderman.
In 1932, l 32 Jews in Chojnów. The kehilla leaders were Martin Schreiber and Hermann Schulz, while Josef Rosenberg was the recording clerk and treasurer. What is more, the management included L. Freudenthal from Bolesławiec as well as Wolff Warschawski who was the cantor and shochet. The kehilla also comprised Jews from the localities situated nearby – Chocianów (Katzenau) – eight people and Siedliska (Siegendorf) – two people.
After WWII, a group of Polish Jews settled in Chojnów who had come to Lower Silesia in organised transports from the USSR. In May 1946, a Jewish committee was established whose members included M. Zalcman, L. Lichtenstein, Sz. Ejges, and M. Baum. The Chojnów Jews set up a few manufacturing cooperatives.
The Jewish community in Chojnów ceased to exist after 1968.
The first record of the “Haynow” settlement comes from 1272. Already in 1288, the documents of the Duke of Legnica, Henry V the Fat, described it as a civitas – a city. Chojnów was granted the full city charter in 1333.
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