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Brzeg Dolny

Polska / dolnośląskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:dolnośląskie / inne (before 1939)
County:wołowski / Wohlau (before 1939)
Community:Brzeg Dolny / Dyhernfurth (before 1939)
Other names:Dyhernfurth [j.niemiecki],
 
GPS:
51.2730° N / 16.7087° E
51°16'22" N / 16°42'31" E

Location

Wojciech Wojtasiak

Province: Lower Silesia, county: Wołów, municipality: Brzeg Dolny. It is situated on the edge of Wysoczyzna Rościsławicka (height) and Wrocławcka Proglacial Valley, on the Odra River, to the north-west of Wrocław.
 

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History

Tamara Włodarczyk /

Jews settled in Brzeg Dolny only in the 17th century. Their arrival in the town was closely connected to the printing house of Shabbatai Bass. In 1688 Bass was granted permission to establish a printing house in the town; its personnel consisted of Polish and Czech Jews (from Prague, Cracow and Wodzisław). In 1694 number of the printing house personnel increased to 48 people (13 Jewish families in total). Thus the first Jews of Brzeg Dolny were employees of the printing house and members of the employees’ families. From 1772 Bass’ printing house published official newspaper Dyhernfurther Privilegierte Zeitung; it was in German language but printed in Hebrew alphabet, with numerous Hebrew expressions used in the text.

From the beginning of the 19th century situation at the printing house was gradually deteriorating, due to the competitive activity of printing houses in Frankfurt an der Oder, Warsaw and Galicia. In 1812 Brzeg Dolny magistrate granted local Jews permission to engage in trade in order to provide additional means of support for them. In 1834 the printing house published its last book, and was formally closed in 1840.

In the second half of the 19th century the number of members of the Jewish community decreased substantially. Whereas 266 Jews resided in Brzeg Dolny in 1819, in 1885 there were only 35 left. Eventually the Jewish community of Brzeg Dolny lost its autonomy in 1918 and became branch of the Jewish Religious Council in Wrocław. In 1927 the synagogue was transformed into a fire station. In 1936 the last burial was performed at the Jewish cemetery. Two years later, in November 1938, the cemetery was demolished.

Bibliogrpahy

  • K.-D., Alicke: Lexicon der jüdischen Gemeinden im deutschen Sprachraum, vol. 1-3. (2008).

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Local history

Wojciech Wojtasiak

The first record of the Brieg settlement was included in the Land Book of the Duchy of Wrocław in 1353. In 1941, a ferry service across the Odra was launched. The town was populated mostly by fishermen and raftsmen. From 1526 it belonged to the House of Hapsburg. During the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) the town was extensively devastated. In 1663, it was granted the town charter by the Emperor Leopold I under the name of Dyhernfurth. From 1742 the town was part of Prussia. In 1806, a small river shipyard was built in the town. In 1873, a railway bridge was built across the Odra, which connected Wrocław and Głogów.
 

During WWII, in 1939, Germans undertook the construction of Anorgana G.m.b.H. chemical plant in Dyhernfurth. It manufactured chemical weapons, such as tabun and sarin. The workers comprised the prisoners of two branches of the Gross-Rossen concentration camp. In January 1945, Germans launched the elimination of the camps by executing more than 2,000 prisoners. The town was captured by the Soviet Army in January 1945.
 
After the war the town’s names was changed to Brzeg Dolny and it was deprived of its town rights. In 1954, it regained them.

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