Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / śląskie autonomiczne (before 1939)|
|County:||bieruńsko-lędziński / (before 1939)|
|Community:||Bieruń / Bieruń (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Berun [j. niemiecki]|
Берунь [j. rosyjski]
Bieruń - a city situated in southern Poland, in Silesia Province, county town of Bieruń-Lędziny County. It is located 27 km south of Katowice, 306 km south-west of Warsaw. It lies on the Mleczna River.
Jewish settlement in Bieruń is connected with the edict, issued in 1627 by Cesar Ferdinand, which allowed Jews to settle in Silesia after the payment of 40.000 guldens. By this edict Cesar hoped to improve the financial situation of the state, which after the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) was very poor. The edict also allowed certain, privileged groups of Jews (privilegire Juden) to trade and work as craftsmen. The group was also referred to as court Jews (Hofjuden). They could lease customs and taxes, as well as buy houses.
First Jews, started to settle in Bieruń at the end of the 17th century.
In May 1713, Cesar Karol VI issued the tolerance edict (Toleranzpatent) that allowed Jews to settle in Silesia after a payment of the tolerance tax. The bill divided the Jewish community into two parts: (1) land owners, and those without a property (they paid the lower tax); (2) tolerated Jews. Those excluded from the tax, were Jews from Głogów and Biała Prudnicka .
In October 1726 the Silesian Superior Office proclaimed the patent „Wegen der Juden”, that forbade Jews to settle in the houses and cities where, prior to the act, there were no Jews. In this way the influx of Jews (so called strangers) to Silesia was stopped. The document introduced also “rule of settlement (inkolat)” in every Jewish family. Only one son had permission to marry and settle (inkolae). The others were considered strangers and had to leave the country after reaching adolescence.
Introduction of this law increased Jewish settlement in Silesia. The majority of the newcomers dealt with business activity. This created strong opposition amongst the Christian entrepreneurs and merchants, who started to demand that the Jews be expelled from Silesia. It led to the proclamation of yet another edict of Cesar Karol VI, which ordered Jews without separate privileges to leave Silesia. Those who could stay, had permission to deal with retail and small production, as well as with the production and sale of vodka, based on the lease. At the same time city authorities received permission to expel Jews from the city centers, and turn the Jewish cemeteries and synagogues into Christian sites.
During the First Silesian War in 1742, the majority of the region was conquered by the Prussian King
Since 1327 the settlement Bieruń was a Czech fiefdom and it suffered the same political fate as the whole Silesia. In 1387 Bieruń was granted a charter. The development of the town was favored by a beneficial location of the town on the trade route from Wrocław (Breslau) to Kraków (Cracow). In 1865 Bieruń was granted a charter again and was given a name of Bieruń Stary.
In 1975 Bieruń Stary was deprived of its charter and was incorporated into the town of Tychy. In 1991, however, Bieruń was granted a charter again and was given a name of Bieruń.