Polska / śląskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||śląskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||miasto na prawach powiatu / bielski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Bielsko-Biała / Bielsko (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Biala-Beilitz [jidysz]; ביילסקו-ביאלה [j. hebrajski]; Bielitz-Biala [j. niemiecki]|
Adam Marczewski /
Bielsko-Biała - a city in southern Poland in the Silesian Province, seat of Bielsk County. It is situated 60 km south of Katowice, 69 km southwest of Kraków, 350 km southwest of Warsaw; also 40 km east of the border with the Czech Republic (Cieszyn) and 50 km north of the border with Slovakia (Zwardoń). It lies by the Biała River.
In fact, the story of Bielsko-Biała, just like a story of Bielsko and Biała which were two separate municipal centers, is a story of two twin towns. Older and richer Bielsko, which existed as a settlement as early as the 11th century, was granted town privileges in 1263. On the other hand, Biała developed as a village of crafts and agriculture situated at a fortified castle on the right bank of the River Biała. From 1613 on, Biała was an independent crafts village and in 1723 it became a town.
The beginnings of the Jewish settlement in this area had to do with the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) which left many Silesian towns depopulated. Aiming at improving the country’s finances, Emperor Ferdinand eased, in 1627, the policy towards Jews and issued an edict allowing Jews to settle here after paying a special fee at the amount of 40 guldens. The Emperor’s edict made it legally possible to conditionally run trade and craft businesses by a certain separate group of privileged Jews (Ger.: privilegierte Juden), who were also called court Jews (Ger.: Hofjuden). The emperor also gave them his permission to lease tax and customs duty collection. The Jews could buy houses and own them.
Jewish people would come here from Moravia and Lower Silesia bringing along western patterns of social and political life, as well as Jewish customs and religious rituals and the language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
The oldest mention of the Jewish presence in Bielsko dates back to 1653 and it states that tolls were charged and vodka was sold by a person of Jewish origin who was called Mutjude (Ger.: a Jew who charges toll roads). Since the 16th century, cloth production, ceramics and trade developed in Bielsko. The Jews in Bielsko made also their living in agricultural and fish economy; therefore, it can be assumed that the Jews in Bielsko earned their money mostly on trading. On the other hand, based on the 1697 account of Mateusz Klimczak, a Beskids highwayman, who claimed that he sold looted things to “the Jew on the Biała Ri
The history of Bielsko-Biała is, in fact, a story of two towns – Bielsko and Biała – which were separate municipal centres until January 1951.
In the district now called Stare Bielsko, a fortified town was founded in the 12th century at a time when a wave of German colonists had settled in the Silesian Foothills. The first historical mention of the Bielsko settlement dates from 1312, when a forest “between Kamienica and Mikuszowice” was granted to local townspeople. From 1327 on, Bielsko remained under Czech rule and shared in the political fate of Silesia. The fact that the town played a significant role on the salt route leading from Kraków to Cieszyn and further onwards to Moravia was confirmed by the renewal of the town's privileges by Duke Bolesław I in 1424. From the 15th century onwards, the town was known for cloth-making. From 1526 onwards, Bielsko fell under Habsburg rule along with the rest of Silesia. In the mid-16th century, the strongest Protestant community in Cieszyn Silesia was established in Bielsko, and in 1572, the Bielsko territory was separated from the Duchy of Cieszyn and subsequently turned into a free city-state.
As a part of the Duchy of Oświęcim and later of the Silesian County, Kraków Province, Biała, which was founded around 1560 in the territory of the Lipnik Crown Lands (Starostwo Lipnickie), was located on the the right bank of the River Biała. It would develop as a small farming and craft village and exist as a separate municipality from the year 1613 onwards.
Between 1642 and 1660, Bielsko and Biała would be destroyed and plundered multiple times by the Swedish army. In 1659 and 1664, fires ravaged Bielsko, but the town was quickly rebuilt. In 1686, Bielsko received a privilege for free cloth manufacture, and, soon afterwards, cloth from Bielsko was regarded as the best in Silesia and the Czech state. Despite this, strong economic competition had been slowly emerging in the vicinity of Bielsko. In 1710, a customs chamber was created in Biała, and on January 9, 1723, Biała received municipal rights. Very quickly, the town had become one of the most important centres of cloth and linen production in western Lesser Poland. In the mid-18th c