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Barczewo

Polska / warmińsko-mazurskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:warmińsko-mazurskie / inne (before 1939)
County:olsztyński / Allenstein (before 1939)
Community:Barczewo / Wartenburg (before 1939)
Other names:Wartembork
Wartenburg in Ostpreussen [j.niemiecki],
 
GPS:
53.8300° N / 20.6905° E
53°49'47" N / 20°41'25" E

Location

yarek shalom i Jerzy Łapo /

Barczewo | yarek shalom

Barczewo is a town in northern Poland, Olsztyn County, Warmińsko-Mazurskie Province. It is situated between the Pisa and Kiermas rivers in the Olsztyn Lake District. It lies 230 km north of Warsaw and 16 km north-east of Olsztyn.

 

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History

Małgorzata Grzenda

A small Jewish community developed in Barczewo after 1815. At that time, there were only a few people of Jewish descent in the town, but in the next years their number was increasing gradually. In 1836 their number was 40 people, whereas in 1861 it was 77 people. In years 1871-80 the community reached the biggest number, which was 104 and 111 members.The local diaspora had a synagogue and confessional cemetery. At the end of XIXth and in the Xxth century, the community was getting smaller. In 1895, there were 94 Jews in the town. However, 10 years later, there were only 62 Jews. After another 20 years, the number decreased to 56 people. In 1933, there were only 40 Jews in Barczewo.

The local Christian community stayed in a friendly relationship with the members of Jewish community. However, it didn't prevent anti-Semic demonstrations, among other things the one in 1933. In 1939, there were 23 members of the community. Some of them managed to leave the town. Those who didn't do that were imprisoned in the Jewish old people's home in Olsztyn, and then killed.

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Local history

Andrew Rajcher

Barczewo, przełom XVIII i XIX w. | Jerzy Łapo oprac.

In the late 13th and early 14th Centuries, the fortified settlement of Wartberg existed on the site of present-day Barczewo. In 1329, it gained city-status and, at that time, it played an important defensive role.

In 1354, it was completely destroyed by the Lithuanian army so that, in 1364, it was granted the right to re-locate. By the end of the 14th Century, defensive walls and towers had been constructed in Wartberg.

In 1466, the city came under Polish rule and, from that point in time, belonged to the bishops of Warmia. In the meantime, the name of the city was changed to Wartembork.

In 1772, Wartembork found itself within the Prussian partition. During the interwar period, as a result of a referendum, the city remained under German rule.

In 1937, 45 Jews lived here. Wartembork was liberated in January 1945 by Soviet troops. Thereafter, followed consecutive name-changes -  Nowowiejska (in 1945) and then Barczewo (1946).

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