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Baranów Sandomierski

Polska / podkarpackie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:podkarpackie / lwowskie (before 1939)
County:tarnobrzeski / (before 1939)
Community:Baranów Sandomierski / (before 1939)
Other names:
 
GPS:
50.4950° N / 21.5448° E
50°29'41" N / 21°32'41" E

Location

Andrzej Potocki

Baranow Sandomierski is situated on the Vistula River and its right tributary the Babulowka River. It is situated in the Subcarpathian Province, Tarnobrzeg County, and in Baranow Sandomierski Municipality.

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History

Andrzej Potocki/Małgorzata Kuźma /

Religijni Syjoniści z partii Mizrachi.  | nieznany

It is not known precisely when Jews came to Baranów. The the town belonged to Opatów County and this, in turn, to Krakowsko-Sandomierski district administration which was a Jewish administration unit known since the 16th century. Other sources suggest that Jews might have settled in Baranów during the reign of Casimir III the Great, the period when the town was a royal property. First, the Jews lived in Baranów and in the course of time they began to settle in the country. There were 25 Jews in 1662 and 34 in 1676. . The Jewish community obtained a restricted independence in a form of a ‘przychałek’ around 1690.

Just like in other towns, the Jews from Baranów were engaged in trade. The archdeacon Luchman stated in 1718 that the Jews had turned a house situated in the market square into a synagogue and had possessed a cemetery where the dead had been buried. The records of a parochial visitation inform us that one of the houses that was situated in the market square was turned into a synagogue whilst another one was used for keeping liturgical devices. . Following the approval of Cardinal Lipski, the bishop of Kraków, the Jews built a large synagogue of stone. In 1748, Baranow was inhabited by 30 Jewish families (about 300 people together with children) to reach the number of 435 people in 1765. On May 29 1744, it was noted in parish chronicle that after the Prince Janusz Sanguszko had lent the synagogue 200 florins, it would pay 170 florins each year for the benefit of a vicar and a commander in Niwiski. The agreement was confirmed by Fr. Suchwanenberg, a Cracow canon. During a visitation in 1765, the inspector J.C. Ligsza demanded that the Jews who lived in Baranów show him a document which permitted to build the synagogue. The Jews did not present the document because, as they explained, it had burned.

Cholera, which attacked the Jews in 1836, claimed many victims. A fire which broke out in one of Jewish houses at the market square on August 28, 1898 caused huge losses within the Jewish community. Flames enveloped neighboring houses and the wooden synagogue; they were almost totally destroyed. 111 Jewish houses and 24 houses of Catholic families burned down.

In the 19th century, the number of Jews started to grow quickly – in 1870 there were 1,019 Jews, 53.2% of the whole population. 1,600 people lived in the Jewish co

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Local history

Małgorzata Kuźma /

The convenient location of Baranów (close to the Vistula ford) was crucial for its foundation and development. The settlement was first mentioned in 1135, during the reign of Bolesław Wrymouth. The name Baranów stems from ram farming the inhabitants of Baranów were engaged in since time immemorial. At the very beginning, the settlement was merely fortified. However, a stronghold was erected in the Middle Ages.

Casimir III the Great granted the settlement a city charter in 1354. Baranów was the dominion of Gozdawa family in the 13th century. It belonged to Jakub Baranowski during the times of Długosz and to Jan Baranowski around 1480. At the end of the 15th century, Baranów and other nearby estates were in the posession of the Kurozwęccy family. Barbara, a daughter of Kurozwęcki who died in 1518, married Stanisław Górka. On December 11 1569, Górka sold his Baranów estates to Rafał Leszczyński from Leszno. He, in turn, handed them over to his son, Jędrzej Leszczyński. After the death of Jędrzej in 1606, Baranów was handed down to his son, Rafał Leszczyński.


The town developed mainly thanks to the corn trade. Craft, especially cloth manufacturing, furriery and shoemaking, started to develop at the end of the 16th century. The Baranów estates were sold to prince Dymitr Wiśniowiecki in 1677. After his death, Dymitr's widow married Józef Karol Leszczyński. Count Józef Potocki ruled over Baranów around 1771. At that time, the town's population totalled about 1200 inhabitants with a Jewish population constituting a part of it. At the beginning of the 17th century, Baranów became an important centre of Reformation and culture.

The downfall of the town began since the Swedish Deluge and became even more evident after the partitions of Poland, when Baranów, as a border town, lost its economic and trade base. Frequent floods made living in the town very difficult. The floods from 1813-1814,1839,1849, and 1892 went down in history. Additionally, a fire which broke out on August 24 1898 threatened the town and consumed a significant part of a market The town, located between two great empires, was witness to countless historical events, especially in 1831, 1848, and 1863. The third quarter of the 19th century, brought a slow development of Baranów which was a clear reflection of the changes the whole Austrian partition underwent.

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