Polska / podkarpackie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||podkarpackie / lwowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||tarnobrzeski / tarnobrzeski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Baranów Sandomierski / Baranów (Sandomierski) (before 1939)|
|Other names:||ברנוב [j. hebrajski]; Baranów Sandomierski [j. niemiecki]|
Baranow Sandomierski is situated on the Vistula River and its right tributary the Babulowka River. It is situated in the Subcarpathian Province, Tarnobrzeg County, and in Baranow Sandomierski Municipality.
Andrzej Potocki/Małgorzata Kuźma /
It is not precisely known when Jews first came to Baranów. The town belonged to Opatów County and to the Krakowsko-Sandomierski district administration, which was a Jewish administration unit known since the 16th century. Other sources suggest that Jews might have settled in Baranów during the reign of Casimir III the Great, a period when the town was royal property.
Jews first settled in Baranów proper, and over the course of time they began to settle in the country. There were 25 Jews in 1662 and 34 in 1676. The Jewish community obtained a restricted independence in the form of a community branch around 1690.
Just like in other towns, the Jews of Baranów were engaged in trade. The archdeacon Luchman stated in 1718 that the Jews had turned a house situated in the market square into a and possessed a to bury the dead. Records of a parochial visitation do indeed state that one of the houses situated in the market square was turned into a synagogue whilst another one was used for keeping liturgical implements. Following the approval of Cardinal Lipski, the bishop of Kraków, the Jews built a large synagogue of stone in the town. In 1748 Baranów was inhabited by 30 Jewish families (about 300 people together with children) which grew to 435 people by 1765. On May 29, 1744, it was noted in the parish chronicle that after Prince Janusz Sanguszko had lent the synagogue 200 florins, it would pay 170 florins each year for the benefit of a vicar and a commander in Niwiski. The agreement was confirmed by Fr. Suchwanenberg, a Cracow canon. During a visitation in 1765, inspector J.C. Ligsza demanded that Jews who lived in Baranów show hi
Małgorzata Kuźma /
The convenient location of Baranów (close to the Vistula ford) was crucial for its foundation and development. The settlement was first mentioned in 1135, during the reign of Bolesław Wrymouth. The name Baranów stems from ram farming the inhabitants of Baranów were engaged in since time immemorial. At the very beginning, the settlement was merely fortified. However, a stronghold was erected in the Middle Ages.
Casimir III the Great granted the settlement a city charter in 1354. Baranów was the dominion of Gozdawa family in the 13th century. It belonged to Jakub Baranowski during the times of Długosz and to Jan Baranowski around 1480. At the end of the 15th century, Baranów and other nearby estates were in the posession of the Kurozwęccy family. Barbara, a daughter of Kurozwęcki who died in 1518, married Stanisław Górka. On December 11 1569, Górka sold his Baranów estates to Rafał Leszczyński from Leszno. He, in turn, handed them over to his son, Jędrzej Leszczyński. After the death of Jędrzej in 1606, Baranów was handed down to his son, Rafał Leszczyński.
The town developed mainly thanks to the corn trade. Craft, especially cloth manufacturing, furriery and shoemaking, started to develop at the end of the 16th century. The Baranów estates were sold to prince Dymitr Wiśniowiecki in 1677. After his death, Dymitr's widow married Józef Karol Leszczyński. Count Józef Potocki ruled over Baranów around 1771. At that time, the town's population totalled about 1200 inhabitants with a Jewish population constituting a part of it. At the beginning of the 17th century, Baranów became an important centre of Reformation and culture.
The downfall of the town began since the Swedish Deluge and became even more evident after the partitions of Poland, when Baranów, as a border town, lost its economic and trade base. Frequent floods made living in the town very difficult. The floods from 1813-1814,1839,1849, and 1892 went down in history. Additionally, a fire which broke out on August 24 1898 threatened the town and consumed a significant part of a market The town, located between two great empires, was witness to countless historical events, especially in 1831, 1848, and 1863. The third quarter of the 19th century, brought a slow development of Baranów which was a clear reflection of the changes the whole Austrian partition underwent.