Polska / podkarpackie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||podkarpackie / lwowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||tarnobrzeski / tarnobrzeski (before 1939)|
|Community:||Baranów Sandomierski / Baranów (Sandomierski) (before 1939)|
|Other names:||ברנוב [j. hebrajski]; Baranów Sandomierski [j. niemiecki]|
Baranow Sandomierski is situated on the Vistula River and its right tributary the Babulowka River. It is situated in the Subcarpathian Province, Tarnobrzeg County, and in Baranow Sandomierski Municipality.
Andrzej Potocki/Małgorzata Kuźma /
It is not known exactly when Jews first arrived in Baranów. Baranów was part of the Opatów borough, and also the the Kraków and Sandomierz districts. Sandomierz was known as a Jewish administrative unit since the sixteenth century[1.1]. According to other sources, Jews might have settled there at the time of Casimir the Great, when Baranów was a royal property.
At first, Jews resided in Baranów, but gradually moved and settled to the countryside. In 1662, 25 Jews were living in Baranów, while in 1676 there were 34[1.2]. By 1690, the local Jewish community had already gained limited autonomy.
Like in other towns, the local Jews engaged in trade. In 1718, Archdeacon Luchman said that the Jews had converted a house into a synagogue on the market square and a cemetery. This is confirmed by parish records from 1727 that state that one of the houses on the market square in Baranów was converted into a synagogue and another for storing liturgical items[1.3]. In 1741, with the consent of Cardinal Lipski,the Bishop of Kraków – the Jews built a large stone synagogue in Baranów. In 1748, the Jewish community numbered 30 families, which together with children was approximately 300 people. In 1765,this grew to 435. According to an act of 29 May 1744, it was recorded in the parish chronicle that the synagogue made a commitment to Duke Janusz Sanguszki that for 200 florins borrowed annually, it would pay 140 florins for a vicar and commander in Niwiski. This agreement was confirmed by Friar Suchwanenberg, a canon from Kraków. On a visit in 1765, Inspector J. C. Ligsza demanded to see from Jews living in Baranów a document that authorised the building of the synagogue. The Jews, however, did not present it, explaining that it had been burned.
In 1836, there was acholera outbreak among the Jews that claimed many lives. On 24 August 1898, more Jews died in a fire in one of the Jewish houses on the market square. This fire spread to other houses and to the wooden synagogue, nearly destroying all these buildings in the process. In total, 111 Jewish houses and 21 Catholic houses burned down[1.4].
Despite these challenges, the Jewish population of Baranów flourished in the 19th century. In 1870, there were 1019 Jews, which accounted for 53.2% of the local population. The
Małgorzata Kuźma /
The convenient location of Baranów (close to the Vistula ford) was crucial for its foundation and development. The settlement was first mentioned in 1135, during the reign of Bolesław Wrymouth. The name Baranów stems from ram farming the inhabitants of Baranów were engaged in since time immemorial. At the very beginning, the settlement was merely fortified. However, a stronghold was erected in the Middle Ages.
Casimir III the Great granted the settlement a city charter in 1354. Baranów was the dominion of Gozdawa family in the 13th century. It belonged to Jakub Baranowski during the times of Długosz and to Jan Baranowski around 1480. At the end of the 15th century, Baranów and other nearby estates were in the posession of the Kurozwęccy family. Barbara, a daughter of Kurozwęcki who died in 1518, married Stanisław Górka. On December 11 1569, Górka sold his Baranów estates to Rafał Leszczyński from Leszno. He, in turn, handed them over to his son, Jędrzej Leszczyński. After the death of Jędrzej in 1606, Baranów was handed down to his son, Rafał Leszczyński.
The town developed mainly thanks to the corn trade. Craft, especially cloth manufacturing, furriery and shoemaking, started to develop at the end of the 16th century. The Baranów estates were sold to prince Dymitr Wiśniowiecki in 1677. After his death, Dymitr's widow married Józef Karol Leszczyński. Count Józef Potocki ruled over Baranów around 1771. At that time, the town's population totalled about 1200 inhabitants with a Jewish population constituting a part of it. At the beginning of the 17th century, Baranów became an important centre of Reformation and culture.
The downfall of the town began since the Swedish Deluge and became even more evident after the partitions of Poland, when Baranów, as a border town, lost its economic and trade base. Frequent floods made living in the town very difficult. The floods from 1813-1814,1839,1849, and 1892 went down in history. Additionally, a fire which broke out on August 24 1898 threatened the town and consumed a significant part of a market The town, located between two great empires, was witness to countless historical events, especially in 1831, 1848, and 1863. The third quarter of the 19th century, brought a slow development of Baranów which was a clear reflection of the changes the whole Austrian partition underwent.