Polska / zachodniopomorskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||zachodniopomorskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||gryfiński / Landkreis Greifenhagen (before 1939)|
|Community:||Banie / Bahn (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Bahn [j. niemiecki]|
Banie is a small village in the north-western part of West Pomeranian Province. It is situated between two lakes: Mostowe and Dłużec, which are connected by the Tywa River. From 1975 to 1998 the village was part of Szczecin Province.
Martyna Sypniewska /
The town of Banie had Jewish inhabitants probably as early as the middle ages, as evidenced by the oldest surviving documents recording patrician family names such as Jakub, Samuel, or Tewes. The names of Jewish treasurers, Jakub Linde and Samuel Franz, were inscribed in 1691 on the bell of a church that has not survived to this day.
In sources from 1705, we have mention of two Jewish families living in Banie, those of Israel Loyser and Marcus Wolff (known also as Wulff Marcus). The latter had a letter of protection with privileges, and both families had its representatives to assemblies of the Jewish Community Union of Pomerania (German: Pommersche Landjudenschaft, Polish: Związek Gmin Żydowskich Pomorza) in Stargard. In 1712, a fee of 8 thalers was introduced for Jews wishing to settle in Banie. According to a letter from the government in Berlin, the Government of Farther Pomerania (German: Hinterpommersche Regierung, Polish: Zarząd Pomorza Tylnego) was at the time very active in support of some of the Jewish families. It was even cautioned by Berlin, forbidding the Pomeranian government from contacting it without clear cause and reminding said government that according to the edict from 10th November 1694, a private town would be allowed the presence of only one Jew, and two in a state town. Another report, entitled Über das Judenwesen in Hinterpommern ("Regarding the Jewish Population of Farther Pomerania") mentioned Marcus Wulff who, in addition to himself possessing privileges (since 30th May 1694) also applied for a privilege for his son. The report also informs us that, despite the restrictions, Banie had two Jews living there, Abraham Loyser and Abraham Israel. Another report from the magistrate, dated 9th July 1720, contains the complaints of local tradesmen (butchers, furriers, hatters, and cobblers) against Jewish artisans who supposedly hindered their work. Curiously enough, there are also conflicting reports regarding the holdings of Marcus Wulff, estimated at 400 thalers in one place, and at 1,000 thalers in another.
In 1728, Banie had , living in it, paying a total of 84 thalers and 12 groschen in protection tax (Schutzgeld).
Based on directions from the Pomeranian Government (German: Pommersche Regierung, Polish: Zarząd Pomorski) to t
Banie is a very old settlement established probably in the Stone Age. Its initial names were: Banen, Baenen, Terra Banen, Ban, in Banis, Bahn and Bania. They all derive from the word describing a hilly spot, the word ”bania“ meaning a steam bath, and the German word “Bahn“ which means “way“. According to a legend, the village was once called Korona (English – Crown) but after it had been conquered by the Brandenburg, it received the name Bahn.
The first human settlements were established there between 5000 and 2000 B.C. In 9th and 10th century the village was a fortified settlement, which was supposed to guard the fertile grounds of Ziemia Pyrzycka in the west. In 1124 Christianity was probably introduced there. The whole area near Banie was passed on by prince Barnim I to the Knights Templar. After the dissolution of the order, in 1312, the village was taken over by the Knights Hospitaller as a feudal dependency. Independently of this fact, this area belonged to the Duchy of Pomerania. In 1345 Knights Hospitaller handed over the settlement to Barnim III. From the 17th century on the village was under Swedish and Brandenburgian, and in the 18th century it fell under Prussian rule. Although there are records of granting town privileges based on Brandenburg and Lübeck law, it is still unknown when exactly they were granted. In the first written record from 1234 Banie was called civitas, a city that had a coat of arms. Banie also had fortifications, a marketplace and a street plan characteristic of urban areas. In the aftermath of war city was so severely damaged that in 1945 Banie lost its town privileges.