Polska / zachodniopomorskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||zachodniopomorskie / inne (before 1939)|
|County:||gryfiński / gryfiński (before 1939)|
|Community:||Banie / (before 1939)|
|Other names:||Bahn [j.niemiecki]|
Banie is a small village in the north-western part of West Pomeranian Province. It is situated between two lakes: Mostowe and Dłużec, which are connected by the Tywa River. From 1975 to 1998 the village was part of Szczecin Province.
Jews probably lived in Banie as early as the Middle Ages. The oldest documents mention the names of the highest social class such as Jacob, Samuel or Tewes. The names of Jews who held the posts of treasurers – Jacob Linde and Samuel Franz – were in 1691 inscribed on the bell of a church that no longer exists. There are records from 1705 of two Jewish families living in Banie. These families were: Israel Loyser’s Sohn and Marcus Wolff (also known as Wulff Marcus). The latter one had a privilege of a letter of protection. Both families had their representatives at the Pommersche Landjudenschaft (Assembly of Jewish individuals in Pomerania) in Stargard. In 1712 there was a standard fee of 8 thalers (the currency of that time) for Jews that wanted to settle in Banie. From what is known from the written records of the government in Berlin, the Hinterpommerische Regierung (Pomerania Government) strongly supported some of the Jewish families. It was even given a written caution from the Berlin government that forbade turning to the Berlin government without reason. It was also reminded (on the basis of the edict of the 10th of Nov 1694) that in a private town there could only live one Jew and in a public town, two Jews. A different report “Über das Judenwesen in Hinterpommern” (“Jewish community in Farther Pomerania“) mentions Marcus Wulff, who already had a privilege granted (30th of May 1694), but wanted it also for his son. It also contains some information about – despite the ban – two Jews living in Banie – Abraham Loyser and Abraham Israel. In a magistrate’s report of the 9th of July 1720 there were several complaints of local craftsmen (butchers, furrier, hatters, and shoemaker) about Jewish craftsmen that allegedly hindered their work. What is interesting, there are some inaccuracies regarding the value of Marcus Wulff’s estate. It was estimated to amount to 400 thalers, some sources give the amount 1000 thalers. Other reports, including the table (from 1728) with the names of four Jewish families and fees paid by them for the privileges, are also contained in the book. Considering the regulation passed by the Pommersche Regierung (Pomerania Government) of the 7th of April 1731, it can be concluded that an order was issued to expel all the Jews who did not have any privileges. The new rule obliged
Banie is a very old settlement established probably in the Stone Age. Its initial names were: Banen, Baenen, Terra Banen, Ban, in Banis, Bahn and Bania. They all derive from the word describing a hilly spot, the word ”bania“ meaning a steam bath, and the German word “Bahn“ which means “way“. According to a legend, the village was once called Korona (English – Crown) but after it had been conquered by the Brandenburg, it received the name Bahn.
The first human settlements were established there between 5000 and 2000 B.C. In 9th and 10th century the village was a fortified settlement, which was supposed to guard the fertile grounds of Ziemia Pyrzycka in the west. In 1124 Christianity was probably introduced there. The whole area near Banie was passed on by prince Barnim I to the Knights Templar. After the dissolution of the order, in 1312, the village was taken over by the Knights Hospitaller as a feudal dependency. Independently of this fact, this area belonged to the Duchy of Pomerania. In 1345 Knights Hospitaller handed over the settlement to Barnim III. From the 17th century on the village was under Swedish and Brandenburgian, and in the 18th century it fell under Prussian rule. Although there are records of granting town privileges based on Brandenburg and Lübeck law, it is still unknown when exactly they were granted. In the first written record from 1234 Banie was called civitas, a city that had a coat of arms. Banie also had fortifications, a marketplace and a street plan characteristic of urban areas. In the aftermath of war city was so severely damaged that in 1945 Banie lost its town privileges.