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Annopol

Polska / lubelskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:lubelskie / lubelskie (before 1939)
County:kraśnicki / janowski (before 1939)
Community:Annopol / Annopol (before 1939)
Other names:אניפולי [j. jidysz]; אנופול [j. hebrajski]; Аннополь [j. rosyjski]
 
GPS:
54.8364° N / 14.0401° E
54°50'10" N / 14°02'24" E

Location

yarek shalom /

Annopol – a city in eastern Poland, in Lublin Province, Kraśnik County. It lies 32 km west of Kraśnik, 79 km southwest of Lublin, and 205 km southeast of Warsaw.

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History

Jarosław Grzyb/Marta Kubiszyn /

Tablica pamiątkowa w Bełżcu | Adam Marczewski

It is likely that Jews began to settle in Annopol as early as the start of the 17th century, though the oldest documents confirming their presence in the town date back to as late as the 18th century. According to a 1787 census, the town was inhabited by 106 Jews who constituted approximately 44% of the total population of the town.

The majority of Annopol Jews were involved in grain and cattle trade, alcohol production, inn leasing, salt storage-depot leasing, orchard leasing, crafts, and financial services. It is unknown when a formal community was established; different sources give different dates ranging between the 16th and 18th centuries.

To the north-west of the Market Place stood a synagogue with a Jewish cemetery nearby. In the 19th century, there were as many as two synagogues, one built in stone and the other of wood, and toward the end of the century a new cemetery was established outside the borders of the town. The duties of rabbi were performed over the years by Nachman Rubinstein (1828-1878), Elimelech Rubinstein (1878-1923), and Nachman Baruch Rubinstein.

The community developed rapidly in the 19th century, and Jews played a significant economic and social role in the town. There were many Jewish craftsmen (mostly tailors and shoemakers) and Jewish-owned stores and manufacturing/service businesses in the town. There was, in addition, a Jewish hospital funded and financed by the most affluent residents of Annopol. The town was known at the time as a center for the study of the Torah.

In the mid-19th century, town authorities issued

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Local history

Jarosław Grzyb/Marta Kubiszyn

The first reference to the existence of the village of Rachów, Lublin Province, dates from 1724. A town was founded in the territory of the village before 1740 by kastellan of Wiślica and head (Polish: starosta) of Sieradz, Jan Tomasz Morsztyn. At that time, the town was called Rachów. In 1761 Antoni Jabłonowski, the owner of Rachów of that time, received town privileges from King August III. Jabłonowski gave the town the name Annopol in commemoration of his late wife – Anna. After the Third Partition of Poland, in 1795 Annopol became part of the Austrian Partition (New Galicia). In 1809, the town was in the Duchy of Warsaw (Lublin Department), in 1815 in the Kingdom of Poland (Lublin Province, then Lublin Governorate). 

In the 18th and 19th centuries, Annopol was an important place of grain trade, which was floated down the Wisła River. At the beginning of the 19th century the population of Annopol numbered 431 inhabitants. In 1869, it lost its town privilege. Towards the end of the 19th century there were 1,400 residents in Annopol.

During the First World War, there were fierce battles between the armies of Russia and Austria in Annopol.

During the Second World War, in September 1939, Polish detachments fought the attacking German troops in the region of Annopol. It was then that the bridge over the Wisław was blown up. About 2,000 Jew who were imprisoned in the ghetto that had been formed by the Germans, were taken to death camps. 

Annopol regained city rights on 1 January 1996.

After 1945, the town was reconstructed and it recovered from war damage. The 1950s saw a fast development of the centre, which was the result of such enterprises as the opening of a phosphorite mine. In 1975-1998, the town was in the administrative limits of Tarnobrzeg Province. Annopol again became a town in 1996.

 

Bibliography:

  • Annopol. Miasto i gmina, Inowrocław 2001.
  • Szymanek W., Z dziejów powiatu janowskiego i kraśnickiego w latach 1474–1975, Lublin 2003.

 

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