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Annopol

Polska / lubelskie

Synagogues, prayer houses and others Cemeteries Sites of martyrdom Judaica in museums Andere

Summary

Province:lubelskie / lubelskie (before 1939)
County:kraśnicki / janowski (before 1939)
Community:Annopol / (before 1939)
Other names:Anapol [jidysz]
אננופול [j. hebrajski]
 
GPS:
50.8893° N / 21.8655° E
50°53'21" N / 21°51'55" E

Location

yarek shalom /

Annopol – a city in eastern Poland, in Lublin Province, Kraśnik County. It lies 32 km west of Kraśnik, 79 km southwest of Lublin, and 205 km southeast of Warsaw.

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History

yarek shalom

Tablica pamiątkowa w Bełżcu | Adam Marczewski

It is likely that Jews started to settle down in Annopol as early as the start of the 17th century, though the oldest documents confirming their presence in the town date from as late as the 18th century. According to the 1787 records the town was inhabited by 106 Jews who made up approx. 44% of the total population of the town. Most of the Jews of Annopol were grain and cattle traders, alcohol producers, inn, salt storage depots leaseholders, craftsmen and usurers. It is unknown when a separate community was established here – different sources give different dates for the occurrence of the fact (between the 16th and 18th centuries.).

To the north-west of the Market Place there was a synagogue square where a synagogue stood with a nearby Jewish cemetery. In the 19th century there were as many as two synagogues, one built in stone, the other one in wood; toward the end of the century a new cemetery was established outside the limits of the town. The duties of a rabbi were performed in turn by: Nachman Rubinstein (1828-1878), Elimelech Rubinstein (1878-1923) and Nachman Baruch Rubinstein. The community developed quickly in the 19th century, and the Jews played a significant role in the economic and social center. There were many Jewish craftsmen (mostly tailors and shoemakers), stores and manufacturing and service businesses in the town. More than that, there was also a Jewish hospital funded and financed by the most affluent Annopol’s residents. The town was known at the time as the center of Torah studies.

In the mid-19th century the town authorities issued a decree banning the Jews from wearing traditional garments, side locks and beards. Jewish schools and a hospital were closed. The situation led to numerous protests on the part of the local Jewish population and caused ant-Jewish riots. As a result of these events, as well as of the deteriorating economic situation, toward the end of the 19th century, Jews started to out-migrate from Annopol and headed for larger cities and overseas.

Interwar period

Annopol of the interwar-period was a typical shtetl inhabited mostly by Jews. Despite extremely hard economic conditions caused by the aftermath of World War I, demographically, the Annopol community developed

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Local history

Jarosław Grzyb/Marta Kubiszyn /

The first reference to the existence of the village of Rachów, Lublin Province, dates from 1724. A town was founded in the territory of the village before 1740 by kastellan of Wiślica and head (Polish: starosta) of Sieradz, Jan Tomasz Morsztyn. At that time, the town was called Rachów. In 1761 Antoni Jabłonowski, the owner of Rachów of that time, received town privileges from King August III. Jabłonowski gave the town the name Annopol in commemoration of his late wife – Anna. After the Third Partition of Poland, in 1795 Annopol became part of the Austrian Partition (New Galicia). In 1809, the town was in the Duchy of Warsaw (Lublin Department), in 1815 in the Kingdom of Poland (Lublin Province, then Lublin Governorate). 

In the 18th and 19th centuries, Annopol was an important place of grain trade, which was floated down the Wisła River. At the beginning of the 19th century the population of Annopol numbered 431 inhabitants. In 1869, it lost its town privilege. Towards the end of the 19th century there were 1,400 residents in Annopol.

During the First World War, there were fierce battles between the armies of Russia and Austria in Annopol.

During the Second World War, in September 1939, Polish detachments fought the attacking German troops in the region of Annopol. It was then that the bridge over the Wisław was blown up. About 2,000 Jew who were imprisoned in the ghetto that had been formed by the Germans, were taken to death camps. 
Annopol regained city rights on 1.1. 1996.

After 1945, the town was reconstructed and it recovered from war damage. The 1950s saw a fast development of the centre, which was the result of such enterprises as the opening of a phosphorite mine. In 1975-1998, the town was in the administrative limits of Tarnobrzeg Province. Annopol again became a town in 1996.

Bibliography:

  • Annopol. Miasto i gmina, Inowrocław 2001.
  • Szymanek W., Z dziejów powiatu janowskiego i kraśnickiego w latach 1474–1975, Lublin 2003.

 

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