Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||wadowicki / wadowicki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Andrychów / Andrychów (before 1939)|
Kamil Kamiński, Michał Surlas /
Andrychów – a city in southern Poland, in Masovian Province, Wadowice County. It lies 12 km southwest of Wadowice, 61 km southwest of Kraków, and 339 km west of Warsaw. The Wieprzówka River flows through the city.
Martyna Sypniewska /
The date of the arrival of the first Jews in Andrychów remains unknown. They were encouraged to settle regularly in the area due to the charter issued by King Stanisław II August Poniatowski in 1767 for the then proprietor of Andrychów, Stanisław Ankwicz. There is no detailed data about the number of the Jewish inhabitants of the town regarding that period.
Towards the end of the 18th century, the weaving sector developed significantly in Andrychów. It attracted Jewish merchants from other parts of the country. In the 19th century, the local products went to Istanbul, Smyrna, Alexandria, Venice, Barcelona, Lübeck, Hamburg and Moscow.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the number of Jews in Andrychów started to increase quickly. In 1799, the town was inhabited by merely 37, whereas in 1816 by as many as 90 Jews. In 1851, Andrychów had the highest proportion of the Jews (17.4%) in history. Most of the local Jews made a living as traders and alcohol sellers. However, more and more of them gradually turned to craft and manufacture. They were getting richer and richer and thus more and more important in the town. In 1852, a Jewish reading room was founded. In 1884, in place of the wooden one, the community built a German-style brick synagogue that could accommodate 600 people. A Jewish cemetery was established the same year.
Materials produced in the factories operating in Andrychów became popular in all of Europe. Around 1864, the local Jews imported cotton yarn to the town and received ready canvas. Those involved in this business were Ferdynand Stamberger, Joachim Grunspan, Maurycy Unger and Israel Israeli. Moreover, a number of the Andrychów Jews were owners of dye works. The community had its representatives in the town council, which, in 1867, had 10 members, of whom two were Jewish.
The exact date of the creation of the Jewish community in Andrychów remains unknown. What is known is that the kehilla must have been created before 1884 because that year the local Jews founded a Jewish cemetery. The successive presidents of the kehilla were Maurycy Unger, Maurycy Herbst, Teodor Feliks, Ferdynand Stamberger, Bernard Stamberger, Arnold Weinsaft and Dr. Joachim Lowicz. The first rabbi of the kehilla described in sources was Józef Kobak, who became famous in Andrychów as a scholar. From 1860 on, he was the head of the
Martyna Sypniewska /
The beginning of Andrychów dates to the 14th century. It is probable that migrants from Moravia established here a settlement called Indrzychów. In the 1344 Peter ’s Pence collection register, it is listed under a distorted name of Henrychów (ecclesia de Henrichow) In 1345, the settlement covered an area of 27 square kilometers (10 square kilometers according to other sources) and was inhabited by 105 people. In his work called “Liber Beneficjorum” Jan Długosz, a 15th-century chronicler, referred to the aforementioned village as Gendrzychów.
In 1440, Kraków castellan Dziersław from Rytwiany embarked on a private war against Silesia. When he was passing through Andrychów, most of the settlement’s inhabitants joined him, which led to the depopulation of the little town.
During the reign of Polish King Zygmunt I, at the beginning of the 16th century, Andrychów along with the town of Zator came under Polish rule and became an administrative center to the neighbouring settlements. In 1564, during a session of the Polish parliament, a decision was made to incorporate the Duchies of Zator and Oświęcim into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. As a consequence, in place of the Czech law, the Polish law was introduced in the annexed territories and Czech was replaced with Polish as the official language. The changes resulted in the members of the Polish nobility to arrive in this particular area.
“In subsequent years Andrychów changed hands. In the 16th century, during the reign of King Zygmunt Stary, the Szylling family became owners of the town. They supported reformation, so in the second half of the century, some of Andrychów’s residents converted to Calvinism.” The Catholic parish ceased to exist.
Marian Przyłęcki, Szreniawa coat of arms, a judge and then a castellan of Oświęcim became the owner of Andrychów at the beginning of the 17th century. Moreover, he was an advisor to king Zygmunt II and Władysław IV. Marian Przyłęcki’s brother, Hieronim, inherited Andruchów, and then his son Achacy became its heir.
During the Second Northern War in 1655 Swedish troops heading for Oświęcim and Żywiec region, almost entirely destroyed the village of Andrychów. However, the settlement was quickly rebuilt and a weaving center was created here in 1674.
In 1707, similar damage was caused by invasio