Polska / małopolskie
|Synagogues, prayer houses and others||Cemeteries||Sites of martyrdom||Judaica in museums||Andere|
|Province:||małopolskie / krakowskie (before 1939)|
|County:||wadowicki / wadowicki (before 1939)|
|Community:||Andrychów / Andrychów (before 1939)|
Kamil Kamiński, Michał Surlas /
Andrychów – a city in southern Poland, in Masovian Province, Wadowice County. It lies 12 km southwest of Wadowice, 61 km southwest of Kraków, and 339 km west of Warsaw. The Wieprzówka River flows through the city.
Martyna Sypniewska /
The date of the arrival of the first Jews in Andrychów remains unknown. Nevertheless, the Jews were stimulated to settle down regularly in the area due to the charter privilege issued by king Stanisław II August Poniatowski in 1767 for the then proprietor of Andrychów, Stanisław Ankwicz, who let Jews settle down in the town. There are no detailed data on the number of the Jewish inhabitants of the town from that period. The documents from 1772 had a record saying that during the First Partition of Poland, Andrychów was inhabited “by a small handful of Jews”.
Towards the end of the 18th century, the weaving sector developed significantly in Andrychów. It attracted Jewish merchants from other parts of the country. The local products, by hand of those merchants, went to Istanbul, Smyrna, Alexandria, Venice, Barcelona, Lubeck, Hamburg and Moscow. It is probable that the first wooden synagogue was built in Andrychów during that period.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the number of Jews in Andrychów started to increase quickly. In 1799, the town was inhabited merely by 37 Jews, whereas in 1816, there were already 90 of them. In 1851, Andrychów had the highest percentage of the Jewish population (17.4%) in its history. The local Jews lived in majority on trade and alcohol sale. However, more and more of them gradually turned to craft and production. They were getting richer and richer and thus more and more important in the town. In 1852, a Jewish reading room was founded.
The 1830’s was the period of Andrychów’s industrial revolution. The former weaving work-shops were replaced by the textile industry. Jews boosted its modernization. Products from factories in Andrychów became popular in all Europe. Around 1864, the local Jews would bring yarn to the town and receive ready linen. Ferdynand Stamberger, Joachim Grunspan, Maurycy Unger and Israel Israeli worked in this sector. Moreover, numerous Jews from Andrychów owned dye-works.
Jews were represented in the Town Council of Andrychów. In 1867, the Council had 10 members, two of which were Jewish.
An intensive increase of the Jewish settlement falls on the second half of the 19th century. In 1868, a decree was introduced which permitted people representing different confessions and nationalities to settle down in the town.
The exact date of the cr
Martyna Sypniewska /
The beginning of Andrychów dates to the 14th century. It is probable that migrants from Moravia established here a settlement called Indrzychów. In the 1344 Peter ’s Pence collection register, it is listed under a distorted name of Henrychów (ecclesia de Henrichow) In 1345, the settlement covered an area of 27 square kilometers (10 square kilometers according to other sources) and was inhabited by 105 people. In his work called “Liber Beneficjorum” Jan Długosz, a 15th-century chronicler, referred to the aforementioned village as Gendrzychów.
In 1440, Kraków castellan Dziersław from Rytwiany embarked on a private war against Silesia. When he was passing through Andrychów, most of the settlement’s inhabitants joined him, which led to the depopulation of the little town.
During the reign of Polish King Zygmunt I, at the beginning of the 16th century, Andrychów along with the town of Zator came under Polish rule and became an administrative center to the neighbouring settlements. In 1564, during a session of the Polish parliament, a decision was made to incorporate the Duchies of Zator and Oświęcim into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. As a consequence, in place of the Czech law, the Polish law was introduced in the annexed territories and Czech was replaced with Polish as the official language. The changes resulted in the members of the Polish nobility to arrive in this particular area.
“In subsequent years Andrychów changed hands. In the 16th century, during the reign of King Zygmunt Stary, the Szylling family became owners of the town. They supported reformation, so in the second half of the century, some of Andrychów’s residents converted to Calvinism.” The Catholic parish ceased to exist.
Marian Przyłęcki, Szreniawa coat of arms, a judge and then a castellan of Oświęcim became the owner of Andrychów at the beginning of the 17th century. Moreover, he was an advisor to king Zygmunt II and Władysław IV. Marian Przyłęcki’s brother, Hieronim, inherited Andruchów, and then his son Achacy became its heir.
During the Second Northern War in 1655 Swedish troops heading for Oświęcim and Żywiec region, almost entirely destroyed the village of Andrychów. However, the settlement was quickly rebuilt and a weaving center was created here in 1674.
In 1707, similar damage was caused by invasio