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VERIFIED ARTICLE

Translator name :Agnieszka Floriańczyk

The earliest mention of Rypin appears in a document dated 11 April 1065 and is related to a town nowadays called Starorypin. As early as in the 11th century, Rypin was the seat of the town district, which was later transformed into a castellany. In the 14th century, it became the seat of the county office. In the years 1323-1326, Rypin received a charter based on the Chełmno law. Due to the fact that Rypin was situated on the borderland, it was destroyed several times by the Prussians, Lithuanians, and Teutonic Knights in the 12th -14th centuries.

When Rypin was completely destroyed in 1329, a decision was taken to relocate the town. Władysław, the duke of Łęczyca and Dobrzyń, positioned the town within the boundaries of the present-day Rypin in a document issued on 24June 1345 in Łęczyca. Due to more favourable location, Władysław Łokietek began to build a new town in the area as early as in the years 1327-1329. When in 1329 Dobrzyń Land was seized by the Teutonic Knights, Rypin’s development accelerated. Monks constructed a fortification with two gates around the town between 1329 and 1343. They also erected a castle and the Holy Trinity Church. In 1343, Dobrzyń Land and Rypin were reverted to the Kingdom of Poland.

After the second peace treaty of Toruń in 1466, a stable political situation fostered the town’s growth. By virtue of the privilege granted by Zygmunt August, the townspeople started to clear the town’s forest, build mills and bee yards. In 1564, not only merchants and traders were active in business, but also shoemakers, tailors, blacksmiths, wheelwrights, clothiers, stove fitters, bakers, furriers, and butchers. Many inhabitants were farmers.

The Polish-Swedish Wars (1626-1692 and 1655-1660) and the Northern War (1700-1721) contributed to the decline of the town. Only at the end of the 18th century,  Rypin began to rebuild and assume importance. In 1793, there were 595 people and 90 houses with thatched and shingled roofing in the town. Ryki still had agricultural character and there were only 25 craftsmen and 12 traders. Most of the population made their living working on the farmland. Besides, some farmers also brewed beer and vodka, and dealt with trade and crafts. In the 18th century, Dutch settlers arrived in the Rypin region.

Until 1793, the town belonged to the Land of Dobrzyń in the Kingdom of Poland and was the seat of the county office. As a result of the II Partition of Poland, Rypin was incorporated to South Prussia Province (in Prussia). In 1797, the town found itself in the Department of Płock of New East Prussia Province. In 1807, it belonged to the Duchy of Warsaw. Since 1815, it was part of Płockie Province (since 1837 Płock Governorate) in the Kingdom of Poland ruled by Russia. Initially, Rypin formed part of the Lipno county, and in 1866 it established a separate county.

The 19th century saw the town growing in power and prestige. Between 1803 and 1806, a brick town school was constructed. In the 1870s, barracks were built. In 1886, an elementary girls’ school was established. A Volunteer Fire Brigade was called into existence in 1881. In 1889, the Rypin Credit Society (from 1922 the Cooperative Bank) was formed. A track connecting the town with Dobrzyń and Drwęca ran through Rypin. First signs of industrialization appeared, as a tannery, dairy, and a mill were constructed.

In 1918-1939, Rypin county belonged to Warszawskie Province, and from 1938 to Pomorskie Province. In the interwar period a school network was extended, and a hospital and stadium were built. From 1937, there was also a railway connection to Brodnica and Sierpc. Ignacy Mościcki, President of Poland, paid a visit to Rypin in 1928.

In the years 1939-1945, the town was among the lands directly incorporated to Germany. The County of Rypin was situated in the Regierungsbezirk Bydgoszcz, District Gdańsk – West Prussia.

In 1945, the town belonged to the Bydgoszcz Province and since 1975 to the Włocławek Province. After World War II, small industrial plants gradually developed. For instance, a milk powder factory, a grain elevator, and a factory of furniture accessories were established. The Museum of Dobrzyń Land and the Dobrzyń Branch of the Włocławek Science Society were established. Today, the town is a local administration, business, industry (metal, clothing, building, food branches) and education centre. Since 1999, it is again the seat of the Rypin county in Kujawsko-Pomorskie Province.

Bibliography

  • Rypin. Szkice z dziejów miasta, M. Krajewski (ed.), Rypin (1994).
  • Szkice rypińskie. Materiały z sesji popularno-naukowej zorganizowanej z okazji 900-lecia Rypina w dniu 27 listopada 1965, Bydgoszcz (1967).

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