In 1648, the Płock inhabitants signed a new agreement with the Jews concerning payments of a war tax. Both sides decided that “their mutual interest was to make a perpetual agreement and the elderly Jews, on behalf of all the Jewry from Płock, decided to contribute with 220 florins to the war tax, to each 1000 florins, until the tax in Płock would be paid without violating the old treaties”. In return, the townspeople had to keep and live in peace with Jews who specialized in grain- and wood-trade. The commodities were floated up the Vistula to Toruń and Gdańsk. In 1537 and 1546, the customs house in Włocławek recorded two transports of feathers whose owners, Aleksy and Aron, were Jews from Płock who exported five and six bags, respectively. In the late 16th century, the Jews from Płock brought to Kalisz 105 pieces of cow leather and 619 pieces of goat leather, another Jew exported two pieces of valuable velvet to Ostrzeszów or, again, some other Jew by the name of Mojżesz was an ox-trader and the animals he sold were brought from Wołoszczyzna. The majority of people dealt for the most part with local trade and craft, i.e. with weaving, furriery, slaughtering, dry goods, baking and glass production. Others rented inns or performed free professions.
In the early 16th century doctor Jacob from Sochaczew chose to live in Płock. The Płock kehilla was incorporated into the Greater Poland County in the 16th century. In 1519, an Abraham from Płock appeared among the landowning elders, and more precisely among the assessors, to represent interests of the Płock kehilla. The Polish-Swedish War in 1655-1660, left the whole Jewish district completely ruined but when it was over, the Jews were granted a privilege allowing them to rebuild it. The King gave them permission to “reconstruct the School, Cemetery and all the burnt houses”. What is more, they could buy food, deal with trade, slaughter and sell cattle, as well as rebuild devastated butcher’s shops and stalls. The privilege awarded by King Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki in 1671 additionally facilitated management of the empty municipal parcels in the Jewish district. On 20 March 1676, King Jan III Sobieski confirmed the privileges already given to the Jews from Płock. In the 18th century, until the partition of Poland, the situation did not change much and the Jews still inhabited their own district. The hitherto privileges were confirmed by King August II (9 January 1723), August III (13 December 1760), and Stanisław August Poniatowski (30 November 1770). The basic source of income for the community members remained trade and craft. Some of them rented a distillery, inns in Płock and Winiary and mills in Płock and Chełpowo.
In 1789, the Jewish tailors created their own guild and in 1792 furriers did the same. 113 Jewish craftsmen, mostly tailors, worked here in 1802[3.1]. The end of the 18th and 19th centuries marked a new phase in social, cultural and economic life of the Jews from Płock who highly contributed to the industrial development of the town.
In the year 1870, Mojżesz Sarna built a factory producing farm machines which was then managed by his son – Izydor Sarna who in 1884 constructed the first in Płock iron foundry. Marian Margules established another factory of farm tools and machines in 1884 and after his death the enterprise was controlled by his sons: Czesław, Feliks and Izaak. The infrastructure of the Jewish community developed rapidly in the 19th century. In 1886, a new impressive building topped with a dome was erected at Synagogalna Street on the site of the old huge synagogue and next to the bet ha-midrash which was created in the 17th century. The new construction was situated between Synagogalna and Tylna Streets, near Bielska Street. In 1810, Mordechaj Dancygier funded the Small Synagogue erected at Szeroka Street (today – Kwiatka Street). The initiator of the idea to create the Izaak Fogel Hospital was Arziel Arje Rakowski. In 1872, on 7 Misjonarska Street, the hospital was put to use. It consisted of surgical, maternity, pulmonary, internal and neurological wards and its activity was financed by the Jewish community.
[3.1] Mariusz Żuławnik, Żydzi płoccy w XVI i XVII wieku, „Notatki Płockie”, 2002, no. 2/191, pages 3-6; Maurycy Horn, Chronologia i zasięg terytorialny żydowskich cechów rzemieślniczych w dawnej Polsce (1613-1795), [in:] Żydzi w dawnej Rzeczypospolitej, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo 1991, pages 211-212.
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