Already one month following the change in Germany's politics, 1st April 1933, a boycott of Jewish shops was organised. It was supported by a wide propaganda campaign encouraging hatred towards Jews and making fun of those Germans who purchased goods in Jewish shops or who used the services of Jewish doctors, lawyers or trademen. In 1934, 800-900 jewish vacationers came to Kołobrzeg - a year later, 500. Soon afterwards, the beach was closed to Jews[1.20]. After 1934, Kołobrzeg Jews residents gradually began selling their stores. Some were forced to do so.
In Kołobrzeg, as in the whole of the Third Reich, and after the so-called "Nuremberg Laws" concerning the "protection of German blood and honour" and "German citizenship", a procedure began to determine "Aryan origins". Persecution of residents (who had Jewish ancestors) intensified, regardless of their contribution to society of their social status; half-breed and quarter-breed Jews were excluded from society. By the end 1935, Jews in all public and private clinics had lost their jobs[1.21]. According to a 1935 listing, fifty Jews were still professionally active in Kołobrzeg.
Pre-War anti-Semitic activity culminated in the events of Kristallnacht on 9th-10th Novermber 1938. Jews from Kołobrzeg and Gościn (Groß Jestin) were arrested and transported to the Nazi concentration camp in Sachsenhausen. Later, some of the prisoners were released temporarily. Nazi hit squads attacked the synagogue on Baustraße (today ul. Budowlana 26). Attempts to set it on fire failed, most probably due to the uintervention of Hans Wolff, the owner of a nearby mill, who wanted to prevent the fire from damamging his own property and nearby timber buildings, The synagogue was demolished - the windows were shattered and the roof was destroyed with axes. Apparently, someone attempted to remove the external Star of David with an axe[1.22]. The synagogue's contents were strewn outside. The building was shut and used as a storehouse1.23]. The well-known Jewish Spa Hospital was later used for coal storage. Another target was the pre-burial house in the new Jewish cemetery. It was taken over by soldiers and turned into a stable. Twenty seven Jewish shops were also destroyed.
At the end of 1938, a new address book was published for the following year, where the remaining Jews were given new names - all males were named "Israel" and females "Sara". Appropriate entries were made in the records of the Registry Office in Kolobrzeg. These have been preserved to this day. In addition, Jews were forbidden to attend theatres, cinemas and concert halls. At the start of 1939, Jews had their driver's licences revoked and Jewish children were banned from attending German schools[4.1] .
All this harassment was aimed at forcing Jews to leave the city and the Third Reich. SInce Jews were not protected by law and their passports had been taken away, they were permitted to leave the country only after renouncing their assets to the Third Reich or after paying a fee for a departure permit. However, the more eminent Kołobrzeg Jews chose not to take this path to escape Nazi persecution, which they treated as being transitory. According to Hieronim Kroczyńsk, "They believed that Germans were a cultured people and, because of their high social status, nothing bad could happen to them"[4.2] .
Among the Jews transported to Berlin during 1941-1943, there were thirty Jews from Kołobrzeg \\http://www.sztetl.org.pl/pl/article/kolobrzeg/10,ludzie-listy-nazwisk-genealogia/10535,zydzi-zwiazani-z-kolobrzegiem-deportowani-z-berlina-w-latach-1941-. Some Kołobrzeg Jews, together with Jews from Szczecin and other Pomeranian communities, were deported at the beginning of 1940 as part of the forced expulsion of Jews from the Reich. They were transported to Lublin, and from there to the ghetto in Bełżyce, Głusk or Piaski. Two Kołobrzeg Jews weere taken to the Piaski ghetto. By the autumn of 1942, all had been murdered in Sobibor[1.26].
The last Kołobrzegh Jews who, for various reasons, had not left the city, were transported to Słupsk (Stolp), from, where they were taken to places of extermination. On 10th July 1942, a transport left for the east and, at the end of August 1942, for the camp in Terezin (Theresienstadt). According to the list of those transported, seven people were from Kołobrzeg.
When the fighting ended in Kołobrzeg in March 1945 and the political situation had stabilised oon the so-called Northern and Western Territories, . Ziemiach Północnych i Zachodnich, new people began arriving in the city. The majority were Catholic, with a minority of Greek Catholics and Jews7]. There is no mention of an organised Jewish community Kołobrzeg. There was no expression of the Jewish religion in the city even after 1989. According to the 2002 census, only one Polish citizen declared as someone of "Jewish nationality" or "spekaing Hebrew or Yiddish at home"[1.28].
- Dziemba R., Kościół katolicki w Kołobrzegu na tle przemian społeczno-politycznych w latach 1945–1990, Kołobrzeg 2006.
- Gasztold T., Kroczyński H., Rybicki H., Kołobrzeg. Zarys dziejów, Poznań 1979.
- Grabski A., Rykała A., Żydzi w Polsce 1944–2010, [w:] Atlas historii Żydów polskich, red. W. Sienkiewicz, Warszawa 2010, pp. 393-421.
- Jancke P., Die jüdische Gemeinde in Kolberg, [w:] Kirchen und kirchliches Leben im deutschen Kolberg, ed. U. Gehre, H. R. Marten, S. Sienell, Hamburg 2009.
- Kolberg, [w:] Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 10, Berlin 1934.
- Kolberg (Hinterpommern), [w:] Alicke K.-D., Lexikon der jüdischen Gemeinden im deutschen Sprachraum, Vol. 2, München 2008, szp. 2258-2260.
- Kroczyński H., Dawny Kołobrzeg, Kołobrzeg 1997.
- Noc Kryształowa w Kolbergu, [w:] Informacje Kołobrzeg – MiastoKołobrzeg.pl [online], http://miastokolobrzeg.pl/historia/7127-noc-krysztaowa-w-kolbergu.html [accessed: 19.11.2013]
- Salinger G., Zur Erinnerung und zum Gedenken. Die einstigen jüdischen Gemeinden Pommerns, Vol. 2, New York 2006, pp. 491-507.
- Szukała M., Antysemityzm w służbie archiwalnej III Rzeszy na przvkładzie Archiwum Państwowego w Szczecinie. Aryjskość jako warunek dostępu do zasobu archiwalnego w świetle przepisów i praktyki w pruskiej prowincji Pomorze w latach 1933–1945, [w:] Żydzi oraz ich sąsiedzi na Pomorzu Zachodnim w XIX i XX wieku, red. M. Jaroszewicz, W. Stępiński, Warszawa 2007, pp. 295-304.
[4.1] T. Gasztold, H. Kroczyński, H. Rybicki: Kołobrzeg, zarys dziejów, Poznań 1979.
[4.2] H. Kroczyński: Kronika Kołobrzegu, Kołobrzeg. 2005.
The Administrator has made all possible efforts to present the content accuratly and up-to-date in a way that does not infringe upon the rights of third parties, including copyrights, but cannot guarantee it. Therefore erroneous information on the website may not be the basis for claims. If you have any questions, please contact us at the following e-mail address: email@example.com