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In this way, the city became kind of a Jewish institution known in the whole of Germany. The founder of the first facility offering mud baths was a Jew – Dr. Hermann Hirschfeldwho in the second half of the last century contributed to promoting of this kind of healing. After his death, the city council founded a monument (a black marble obelisk) in his memory that was situated in front of his house at 23 Dietrich-Promenad (present Spacerowa Street). By the same token Hirschfeld became one of the few Jews who had their own monuments in Germany. It was unveiled on the anniversary of his death in 1866. Yet, 19 years later, the monument was taken to a new Jewish cemetery, which fact was equal to erasing the very person of Hirschfeld and his services from the image of the city. Another famous person is Dr. Hermann Hirschfeld’s son - Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld. Until 1893, the number of Jews in Kołobrzeg was still growing. The Jews sat on the city council and the doctors of Jewish descent enjoyed great respect. Between the years 1880-1894, apart from Rabbi Dr. Goldschmidt, the teacher and cantor of the kehilla by the name Zadikov performed an essential role in the city. The number of Jewish inhabitants of Kołobrzeg in 1887 was 528 people, two years later it was 580, and during the next few years it increased to 600 people who constituted 117 families. However, after 1983, there were visibly fewer Jewish people in Kołobrzeg due to the fact that most families decided to depart for Berlin. In 1895-1898, Kołobrzeg could be populated by 500-540 Jews. The Jewish kehilla budget for the year 1897 was to amount to 6,164 marks, and the tax rates increased. In 1870 Chewra Kadisza (a Jewish funeral association, the so called Saint Funeral Brotherhood dealing with burials of male kehilla members) was established and in 1848 Israelitischer-Frauen-Wohltätigkeitsverein ( a Jewish association supporting the poor and dealing with burials of female members of the kehilla) was formed. A choir (German Gesangsverein) was also active by the synagogue. The names of people who were members of the community board as well as those who were active in Jewish organizations in Kołobrzeg at the end of the 19th and 20th centuries are all listed in the book[4.1] . In the early 20th century the kehilla budget, which included money brought by taxes paid by 89 of 350 members, was equal to 6,553-7,410 marks. Throughout World War I, the Kołobrzeg Jews also participated in the battles at the front and also were killed there. The name list is to be found in the book[4.2] . In 1913 the Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Creed (German “Central-Vereins deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens”) and the Society of Jewish History and Literature (German “Verein für jüdische Geschichte und Literatur”) were both active in the kehilla. According to the report from 1931-1932, the Jewish Youth Association and the Library of the Literature Institute (as it was commonly called) also operated in town, and were located on the market square. After 1920, the Jewish kehilla in Kołobrzeg included likewise the Jews living in such places as Gościno (Groß Jestin), Siemyśl (Simötzel), Rzesznikowo (Reselkow), or Dębica (Damnitz). The names of the people who held high rank positions in the kehilla and in the Jewish organizations after the year 1920 are all listed in the book . After Adolf Hitler had come to power, the Jewish population of Kolobrzeg started to suffer hardships. On 2 February 1933 a new newspaper called „Kolberger Beobachter” (Kolobrzeg Observer) was published. It was supposed to be an organ of the local NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers' Party) unit. The most essential information in the first edition was the list of shops run by Jews, where true German citizens should not go shopping. An Anti-Jewish boycott was organized on 1 April 1933, only one month after the political preferences had changed in Germany. It was supported by a wide propaganda campaign enhancing hatred towards Jews and making fun of Germans who purchased goods in Jewish shops or were served by Jewish doctors, lawyers or craftsmen.

After 1934, the Kołobrzeg Jews began to sell their own stores and even were forced to giving up running them. The reason for that was the fact that the population was intimidated. After the so called ‘Nuremberg Rules’, concerning ‘protection of German blood and honor’, and ‘German citizenship’, were introduced in Kolobrzeg as well as in the whole Third Reich, the procedure of determining Aryan origin began. Persecution of Jewish residents intensified, regardless their contributions and social status; half-breed and quarter-breed Jews were excluded from society.

At the end of 1935 Jews lost their jobs in every health clinic, whether private or state ran.

Hermann Hirschfeld

Dr Hermann Hirschfeld (1825-1885) was born in Szczecinek, from 1852 he lived in Kołobrzeg, where he died. From 1861 Dr Hirschfeld worked in the brine baths spa (called „Towarzyski” by the Poles) in today’s Spacerowa Street. In 1882 he made a research on the Kołobrzeg peloid taking its beneficial qualities into consideration, and he started to conduct peloid treatments in his spa. He popularized peloid baths in the whole health resort of Kołobrzeg which made him a pioneer of this treatment. He also did volunteer work at the Jewish Health Spa in Kołobrzeg, he held the post of a leading doctor. For almost 30 years he cooperated with a Kołobrzeg newspaper called „Kolberger Zeitung für Pommern”, where he published his articles and he also engaged in welfare work for the city’s development, its infrastructure and he focused on the needs of the spa visitors. In 1859 doctor Hirschfeld had a guide book for his patients published in two languages: Polish an...

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[4.1] Gerhard Salinger, Zur Erinnerung und zum Gedenken [...], p. 496, 497.

[4.2] Gerhard Salinger, Zur Erinnerung und zum Gedenken [...], p. 498, 499.

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