In the second half of 1944, Jews from the liquidated ghetto in Łódź and the liquidated labour camps in Kielce and Radom Province (mainly Skarżysko-Kamienna) were transported to the labour camps in Częstochowa. Consequently, the number of prisoners increased to about 10,000. On 15th and 16th January 1945, around 3,000 Jews were rapidly evacuated by railway transport to concentration camps inside the Third Reich (all died). When the Russians liberated the camp, there were 5,200 Jews freed in Częstochowa. In the concentration camps of Bergen-Belsen (15th April), Buchenwald (1st May) and Ravensbrück (5th May), about 3,000 Częstochowa Jews had survived[5.1].
Following World War II,there were more than 5,000 Jews in Częstochowa. They were the former prisoners of German concentration camps operating in Częstochowa and its surroundings. The city's Jewish life began to revive. Branches of various organizations were established in Częstochowa, including the Jewish Committee under the Central Committee of Polish Jews. A Jewish school, orphanages and a branch of the Jewish Congregation (at Garibaldiego 18) allopened. Local committees of Jewish parties resumed their activities. This included the Bund and Zionist organizations which, apart from implementing their programmes, also offered social assistance to its memebers and their families.
In the 1940's, many Jews were helped materially JOINT and the Central Committee of Polish Jews. The Częstochowa branch of the Jewish Committee established a cooperative for tailors and shoemakers in order to guarantee jobs. Private tailors', shoemakers' and carpenters' shops opened. In June 1946, Częstochowa had around 2,000 Jews. However, the Kielce pogrom (4th July 1946) forced the majority of them to decide to emigrate. After these events, as similarily in other towns inhabited by Jews, a branch of Special Commission of the Jewish Committee was established
By the beginning of 1950, the majority of Jewish institutions and facilities in Częstochowa was either liquidated or nationalized. On 29th October 1950, the Central Committee of Jews in Poland and the Jewish Culture Association merged and the Social and Cultural Association of Jews in Poland came into being(Polish: Towarzystwo Społeczno-Kulturalne Żydów w Polsce, TSKŻ). A local branch of the Association was established in Częstochowa which, in the 1950's and 1960's. aimed its activities at children and youth. It organized, for instance, English courses and a drama circle. Following the reactivation of the Organisation for the Development of Industrial, Artisanal and Agricultural Productivity amongs the Jewish population of Poland (ORT) in 1957, the a local committee was set up, which ran, for example, a leather trade course[5.2].
The situation of Jews in Częstochowa, similarily as in other cities, deteriorated after an anti-Semitic campaign during the summer of 1967 which, in March 1968, culminated in another wave of emigration. As a resuly, the Jewish community in Częstochowa all but ceased to exist by the beginning of 1970's .
The renaissance of Jewish life began with the fall of Communist government in Poland in 1989[5.3].The TSKŻ branch in Częstochowa reopened.
[5.1] S. Waga (ed.), The Destruction of Czenstokov (Częstochowa, Poland), (1949) [online] http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/Czestochowa2/Czestochowa2.html [Accessed 15 April 2014].
[5.2] M. Borkowski, A. Kirmiel, T. Włodarczyk, Śladami Żydów: Dolny Śląsk, Opolszczyzna, Ziemia Lubuska, (2008), 8; L. Brener, Der jidiszer jiszuw in Czenstochow noch der cwejter welt-milchome (1945–1956), in: S.D. Singer (ed.), Czenstochov. A New Supplement to The Book „Czenstochover Yidn”, (1958), 81–84; A. Namysło, Utracone nadzieje. Ludność żydowska w województwie śląskim/katowickim w latach 1945–1970 / Lost Hopes. Jews in Silesian/Katowickie Voivodeship in Years 1945–1970, (2012), 40, 124, 141, 160, 168, 172.
[5.3] M. Borkowski, A. Kirmiel, T. Włodarczyk, Śladami Żydów: Dolny Śląsk, Opolszczyzna, Ziemia Lubuska, (2008), 8-10.
The Administrator has made all possible efforts to present the content accuratly and up-to-date in a way that does not infringe upon the rights of third parties, including copyrights, but cannot guarantee it. Therefore erroneous information on the website may not be the basis for claims. If you have any questions, please contact us at the following e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org