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Zamość

Polska / lubelskie

Synagogen, Gebetshäuser und andere Friedhöfe Orte der Martyrologie Judaica in Museen Sonstiges

Zusammenfassung

Woiwodschaft:lubelskie / lubelskie (vor 1939)
Bezirk:zamojski / zamojski (vor 1939)
Gemeinde:Zamość / Zamość (vor 1939)
Andere Namen:זאמאשטש [j. jidysz]; זמושץ' [j. hebrajski]; Замость [j. rosyjski]
 
GPS:
50.7230° N / 23.2520° E
50°43'22" N / 23°15'07" E

Lage

yarek shalom

The town of Zamość, is the county’s seat in the Zamojskie county. It is located in the Lubelskie province. In Zamość there are 66,2 thousand inhabitants (2008). It is located in the Łabuńka River valley, and on its right tributary – the Topornica River (Wieprz’s basin). It is surrounded by the low highlands of Padół Zamojski.

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Geschichte

Marta Kubiszyn

In 1588, that is six years after the city was founded, Jews were granted the right to settle in the town. Jan Zamoyski, who wanted to benefit from the luxury commodities trade, invited Sephardic Jews to the town. Jews who settled in Zamość came from Spain, Turkey, and Italy. They traded mainly in diamonds, precious fabrics, oriental spices and decorative arts products. During that time, the community of Sephardic Jews was unique in the whole Republic of Poland. It was an autonomic institution until the mid-17th century and it was not subject to the supreme Jewish self-government authority in the Republic of Poland – the Council of Four Lands.

At the end of the 16th century, a Jewish district was founded in the north-eastern part of Zamość, around the Solny Square (Rynek Solny). In 1590, following the privileges given to the settlers, the first wooden synagogue was built within the Jewish district. Soon thereafter it was replaced by a stone synagogue, constructed at the beginning of the 17th century. After some years it was reconstructed and women’s prayer rooms were added. In the 18th century it was linked by a corridor to the Jewish Community House. At the beginning of the 17th century, there was a Jewish street (today Zamenhofa Street) in Zamość, in which the aforementioned synagogue was located, as well as: a house of education, mikvah and a Jewish hospital. In 1657 there were also 19 houses. The Jewish cemetery was located outside the municipal walls.

The second half of the 17th century brought significant demographic, economic and cultural changes to the municipality of Zamość. The Zamość defensive castle, first invaded by the Chmielnicki’s Kazakhs and then by the Swedish Army (in 1656), welcomed a large group of Jewish refugees from Wołyń and Russia – that is from the territory of the Cossack uprisings and wars between Russia and Turkey. Ashkenazi Jews rapidly gained advantage over the Sephardic Jews, which caused the latter to lose their former economic position. Even though in 1684 the Sephardic Jews were granted permission to establish their own independent Jewish community, some of them mixed with the Ashkenazi Jews, and some left the city. The situation contributed to creation of specific local culture, drawing its roots both from the Sephardic Jews and the Ashkenazi Jews’ tradition.

The municipalit

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