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Chełm

Polska / lubelskie

Synagogen, Gebetshäuser und andere Friedhöfe Orte der Martyrologie Jaudaica in Museen Sonstiges

Zusammenfassung

Woiwodschaft:lubelskie / lubelskie (vor 1939)
Bezirk:chełmski / chełmski (vor 1939)
Gemeinde: / (vor 1939)
Andere Namen:Chelm [jidysz]
Khelm [j. rosyjski]
Kholm [j. ukraiński]
 
GPS:
51.1430° N / 23.4715° E
51°08'34" N / 23°28'17" E

Lage

yarek shalom /

Panorama Chełma | K. Dromlewski

Chełm – a city by the Uherka River (one of Bug River's left-bank tributaries) in eastern Poland, Lubelskie Province. The city has county rights and is the center of Chełm County. It lies 247 km southeast of Warsaw, 71 km east of Lublin and 29 km west of the border checkpoint with Ukraine at Dorohusk.

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Geschichte

yarek shalom/Marta Kubiszyn /

Portret Izaaka Baumana | Nieznany

The first Jews arrived in Chełm around 1205, when the town was part of the Polish state. First historical references to Jews in Chełm (in the Polish territory) date from the beginning of the 15th century. Soon after that, an independent Jewish community was established there. 

In 1543,  the Chełm had 71 craftsmen, of whom 25 were Jewish. A yeshiva, in which, for example, Symeon Auerbach and Salomon Zalman were teachers, operated in the city in the middle of the 16th century. At that time Reb Juda Aron (rabbi of Lublin, Chełm and Bełżec) called the "doctor of Jewish law”, was famous in Chełm. He was nominated by King Zygmunt Stary (Sigismund the Old) as a tax-collector in the entire Chełm's land. He had a son – Elijah Baal Szem – a famous cabalist and an ancestor of a family of rabbis that was famous in Europe - Aszkenazy.

In 1550, 371 Jews lived in the city. Three years later a Jew called Joszko was the lease-holder of the duties in Chełm and Hrubieszów. In 1556, King Zygmunt August issued a privilege, which took care of the Jewish population.

In the first half of the 16th century the community of Chełm became one of the biggest and most significant in this region. The facts like the issuance in 1557 by King Zygmunt Stary of a decree prohibiting the Jews of Kraków, Poznań, Lublin, Lwów and Chełm from involving in the affairs of smaller kehillot may be a sign of the community's strong position and its striving for dominance over smaller centres..

Between 1606 and 1615 Samuel Eliezer ben Juda Edels was the rabbi. In 1629, the city had 2,600 inhabitants with about 800 Jews (30.7%). Some of the Jews living in Chełm worked in agriculture, while rich Jewish merchants played an important role in the international leather, wool and flour trade. Many of the preserved archival materials prove the strong economic connections between the Jewish and Catholic inhabitants of Chełm, although also some serious conflicts took place here, like the ones in 1580 and 1582, when Jews and the synagogue were attacked. The prosperous time of the community's development was interrupted by the Cossack invasion, which wa

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