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Brześć Kujawski

Polska / kujawsko-pomorskie

Synagogen, Gebetshäuser und andere Friedhöfe Orte der Martyrologie Jaudaica in Museen Sonstiges

Zusammenfassung

Woiwodschaft:kujawsko-pomorskie / pomorskie (vor 1939)
Bezirk:włocławski / włocławski (vor 1939)
Gemeinde:Brześć Kujawski / Brześć Kujawski (vor 1939)
Andere Namen:Brześć
Brest-Kujawien (1939-1942)
Brest Kuiavien (1939-1943)
Brest (Warheland) 1943-1945
בריסק קױאװסק [j.jidysz],
 
GPS:
52.6066° N / 18.9012° E
52°36'23" N / 18°54'04" E

Lage

Tomasz Kawski

A city situated in the Kujawien-Pomeranian Province, in Kujawien Lakeland on the Zgłowiączka River.

Distances: Bydgoszcz 96 km, Poznań 144 km, Włocławek 13 km, Warsaw 161 km.
 

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Geschichte

Tomasz Kawski /

The earliest source of information about Jews in Brześć Kujawski dates from 1428, and the next one is from 1453. The Jews of Brześć paid 30 florins of rent in 1479, and in 1507, a coronation tax of 25 zlotys was imposed on them. In the 16th, and perhaps as early as the 15th century, there existed an independent kehilla in Brześć. The 1538 treaty, according to which Jews could possess 15 parcels and houses in the town, contributed to the growth of the agglomeration. In 1558, its citizens agreed to build another 8 Jewish houses in Brześć. In 1565, property owned by Jews included 18 houses and a schoolhouse. In 1566, the Jews of Brześć paid a poll tax of 108 zlotys and 9 grosze.

In 1616, they had 15 parcels and 8 buildings with squares. Jews paid rent for the properties and gave the county head (Polish: starosta) a cart and a horse. They paid taxes for the Jewish cemetery as well. King Stanisław August Poniatowski granted a privilege to the Jewish population on April 23, 1782, which allowed them to build houses on Żydowska Street (Jewish Street), where they already had 23 parcels and a synagogue built in the early 16th century. After a fire that broke out in 1781, only one Jewish house survived. The Jews were exempted from payment of all taxes for the duration of one year. The Jews were also granted the right to trade in all possible commodities. In 1793, 111 Jews lived in Brześć and they dominated in trade and selected crafts, including bakery, butchery, tailoring, and other  professions.

The Jewish district was situated in the northeastern part of the town including Żydowska Street (“Jewish Street,” which today is part of Krakowska Street) and Poprzeczna Street. It was a lower part of the town, much more indigent and decrepit. There was a synagogue there (on the left side of Żydowska Street), and the rabbi and Jewish craftsmen resided there. In 1782, on both streets, there were 22 parcels and 16 Jews, the heads of their families took up residence here (6 traders, 1 tenant, 4 butchers, 3 tailors, 1 barber, and 1 haberdasher). The financial situation of the Jewish kehilla in the 18th century was poor. The wealthiest members of the kehilla were Haim Rabinowicz and Haskiel Herszkowicz. In 1782, the rest of the Jewish inhabitants were Jewish tenants. There were a total of 16 heads of fami

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Lokalgeschichte

Tomasz Kawski

Administrative position and geographical location:
X-XIV Kingdom of Poland, Brest Kujawien Duchy
1332-1343 Teutonic Order
1343-1793 Kingdom of Poland, Brest Kujawien Province
1793-1807 Prussia, South Prussia
1807-1815 Duchy of Warsaw, Bydgoszcz department, Brest County
1815-1918 Russia (Kingdom of Poland), Warsaw Province, Warsaw Government/ Guberniya, Brest/ Brest County, and later Włocławek County
1918-1939 Poland, Warsaw Province (1918-1938), Pomeranian Province (1938-1939), Włocławek County
1945-1975 Bydgoszcz Province (1945-1950) Pomeranian Province
1975-1998 Włocławek Province
From 1999 Kujawien -Pomeranian Province, Włocławek County, Brześc Brest Kujawien Municipality

The first mention of Brest comes from 1228. The city came to being after the year 1250 on the initiative of Kujawien Duke, Casimir, the son of Conrad of Masovia. The city was granted German Law after 1275. The importance of the city was emphasized by the fact that in 1236 it became headquarters of Brest-Kujawien dukes, and what is more, from 1255 it was nominated as a capital city. In 1275, there was a castellany here, and in 1312—the city authorities office (starosty). In 1312 and 1343, Brest was a capital city of Brest-Kujawien Province. In 1260, Władysław, Duke and the future Polish King, was born in Brest. City walls surrounded Brest in the late medieval period. A parish church and buildings of a Dominican monastery were situated in this region. In the latter half of the 14th century, during the reign of Casimir the Great, a castle was built on a natural elevation. The border location was a perfect argument for repeated meetings, congresses, and Polish-Teutonic conventions to be held in Brest. Between the years 1300-1306, the city was under Wacław/Wenceslas, the Czech Republic King’s rule. It returned again to Kujawien Piast dynasty. In 1329, 1331-1322, the Teutonic Knights stormed the city, which after the seizure in 1332 remained under Teutonic Order control for as many as 14 years, i.e. until 1346. A commandeer was brought into existence in Brest by the Teutonic Knights. On the Zgłowiączka River that flowed through the city of Brest a port was erected that linked the Zgłowiączka and Bachorza Rivers. New rulers relocated the castle and secured the city by fencing it with barrier walls. Brest wa

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