Polska / podkarpackie
|Synagogen, Gebetshäuser und andere||Friedhöfe||Orte der Martyrologie||Jaudaica in Museen||Sonstiges|
|Woiwodschaft:||podkarpackie / lwowskie (vor 1939)|
|Bezirk:||leski / leski (vor 1939)|
|Gemeinde:||Baligród / Baligród (vor 1939)|
yarek shalom /
Baligród (49°20' N, 22°17' E) – ein Dorf im Karpatenvorland, im Kreis Lesko, in der Gemeinde Baligród (vom 1. Januar 1999 bis zum 1. Januar 2002 im Kreis Bieszczady), Baligród liegt am Fluss Hoczewka.
In den Jahren 1975-1998 lag die Ortschaft in der Woiwodschaft Krosno. Sie zählt heute 1468 Einwohner (Stand: 2004).
Jews lived in Baligrod as early as the town was founded. The first mention of a Jew by the name of Zelman in Woronikowka dates back to 1605. Most probably till the end of the 18th century, Jews were subordinated to Lesko kehillah, and later the Jewish community in Baligrod gained its independence. In 1710, 148 out of the total of 533 inhabitants were Jews. The damage caused during the Great Northern War reduced the town's population significantly – in 1764 only 114 Jews lived there, and in the whole Baligrod kehillah, which the town and ten nearby villiges belonged to, there were a total of 144 members. 20 years later as many as 400 Jews out of the total population of 782 lived in Baligrod itself. In 1807, there arose a serious dispute which led to a quite severe conflict between the Baligrod Jews and a Zernica tenant. In 1880, the kehillah owned baths and a hospital.
In 1870, 147 Jewish families (435 people), and only 90 Christian families lived in the town, whereas ten years later there were 564 Jews and 544 Christians. In the years 1870-1898, a Jew by the name of Hersch Grossinger was the owner of Baligrod manors. He purchased some granges in the surrounding villages: Bystre, Cisna, Huczwice, Mchawa, Rabe and Steznica. After his death his sons, Lazar and Chaim, inherited his properties. In 1895 the Loans Society (Towarzystwo Kredytowe) was established with Juda Hersch Mittman as the president. By the end of the 19th century, Lipa Meiselsa owned an inn, Hinde Weithmann ran a hostelry and an inn; moreover there were two wine stores and several Jewish shops in the town. Hersch Blank was the baker, Isaak Morgenbesser – the butcher, and Juda Falek was the tailor.
At the beginning of the 18th century, a synagogue was built, whose existence was verified in 1870. At that time the Jewish community in Baligrod also owned a cemetery and a religious school, which 40 pupils attended. Another synagogue was built at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. It was situated in the north-west corner of the market square, in the street leading to the Jewish cemetery. That synagogue was built of brick and covered with a hip roof.
In 1900, there were 2,484 Jews in the whole municipality, whereas in the town itself 988 inhabitants (i.e. 61.5% of the population ) were Jewish, Before the First World War about 1,100 Jews lived there. Later their
In the early 17th century, probably after the year 1612 based on Magdeburg rights, the town was located on the land belonging to the villages of Stężnica and Woronikówka. The first mention of Baligród dates back to 1633, when it was granted the right to store Hungarian wines. A few years later, a customs house was opened and the town was entitled to hold two fairs every year. Baligród, situated near popular mercantile road to Hungary, improved also as a local center of trade and handicraft. At the turn of 17th and 18th century, the Bal family built in the town a fortified manor. In 1772-1918 Baligród was in the Austrian partition. In the second half of 19th century, because of the changing economic conditions, Baligród deteriorated and before 1915 lost town privileges. During First World War operations in Carpathian Mountains (1914-1915) the town was significantly damaged. At the end of the war, Baligród was taken over by Ukrainian troops. The Polish army regained this area only in January 1919.
During Second World War, in September 1939, German troops encroached on Baligród. The village was integrated into General Government and the Gestapo as well as the Blue Police were established there. Their offices were manned by Ukrainians. At the end of the war, on 6th August 1944, Baligród was terrorised by a group of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), which murdered 42 Poles. In the course of war maneuvers and subsequent battles with UPA, Baligród was partly demolished and suffered significant losses in population, especially due to extermination of Jews and delocalisation of indigenous Ruthenians. Nowadays, it has almost 1,500 inhabitants today.
Today, Baligród is a tourist resort.
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