Polska / podkarpackie
|Synagogen, Gebetshäuser und andere||Friedhöfe||Orte der Martyrologie||Jaudaica in Museen||Sonstiges|
|Woiwodschaft:||podkarpackie / lwowskie (vor 1939)|
|Bezirk:||leski / leski (vor 1939)|
|Gemeinde:||Baligród / Baligród (vor 1939)|
|Andere Namen:||Baligród [j. niemiecki]; בליגרוד [j. hebrajski]|
yarek shalom /
Baligród (49°20' N, 22°17' E) – ein Dorf im Karpatenvorland, im Kreis Lesko, in der Gemeinde Baligród (vom 1. Januar 1999 bis zum 1. Januar 2002 im Kreis Bieszczady), Baligród liegt am Fluss Hoczewka.
In den Jahren 1975-1998 lag die Ortschaft in der Woiwodschaft Krosno. Sie zählt heute 1468 Einwohner (Stand: 2004).
Jews may have lived in Baligród during the very first years of the town's existence. A Jewish man called Zelman, who lived in the area of Woronikówka, was described in the historical records dating back to 1605. Up until the end of the 18th century, the Jewish community of Baligród most probably functioned as a part of the Jewish Community Co-operative of Lesko. Later on, Baligród gained full autonomy. In 1710, the town had 148 Jewish inhabitants (and 533 inhabitants in total).
The town suffered great damage during the Great Northern War, which caused its population to decrease dramatically. In 1764, there were only 114 Jews living there. The entire Jewish kahal of Baligród (comprising the town and 10 surrounding villages) totaled 144 people. 20 years later, however, the Jewish community grew stronger; 400 out of 728 inhabitants of Baligród were Jewish. This number increased mainly due to the influx of settlers from Lesko and Sanok. By 1808, the community of Baligród had its own bathhouse and hospital (i.e. house for the poor).
In 1870, Baligród was home to 147 Jewish families and only 90 Christian families (its Jewish population amounted to 435 people in total). Only ten years later, however, the proportion changed to 564 Jews and 544 Christians. In the years 1870-1898, a Jew by the name of Hersz Grossinger owned a number of properties located in the town, as well as several farms in the surrounding villages of Bystre, Cisna, Huczwice, Mchawa, Rabe, and Stężnica. After his death, the properties were inherited by his sons, Lazar and Chaim. The Loans Society started to operate in Baligród in 1896, with Juda Hersz Mittman working as its president. Among other Jewish businesses in the town were: a tavern run by Lip Meisels, a guesthouse and inn owned by Hinde Weithmann, two wineries and several shops. Hersz Blank was the local baker, Izaak Morgenbesser was the butcher, and Juda Falek was the tailor.
The first synagogue in Baligród was most probably built at the beginning of the 18th century, but the first official record of its existence comes from 1870. The Jewish community of the town had its own cemetery and religious school, which had 40 students. The second synagogue, a brick building with hipped roof, was built at the turn of the 19th century. It was located in the northwestern corner of t
In the early 17th century, probably after the year 1612 based on Magdeburg rights, the town was located on the land belonging to the villages of Stężnica and Woronikówka. The first mention of Baligród dates back to 1633, when it was granted the right to store Hungarian wines. A few years later, a customs house was opened and the town was entitled to hold two fairs every year. Baligród, situated near popular mercantile road to Hungary, improved also as a local center of trade and handicraft. At the turn of 17th and 18th century, the Bal family built in the town a fortified manor. In 1772-1918 Baligród was in the Austrian partition. In the second half of 19th century, because of the changing economic conditions, Baligród deteriorated and before 1915 lost town privileges. During First World War operations in Carpathian Mountains (1914-1915) the town was significantly damaged. At the end of the war, Baligród was taken over by Ukrainian troops. The Polish army regained this area only in January 1919.
During Second World War, in September 1939, German troops encroached on Baligród. The village was integrated into General Government and the Gestapo as well as the Blue Police were established there. Their offices were manned by Ukrainians. At the end of the war, on 6th August 1944, Baligród was terrorised by a group of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), which murdered 42 Poles. In the course of war maneuvers and subsequent battles with UPA, Baligród was partly demolished and suffered significant losses in population, especially due to extermination of Jews and delocalisation of indigenous Ruthenians. Nowadays, it has almost 1,500 inhabitants today.
Today, Baligród is a tourist resort.
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